Akina Wright

Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Orville na Wilbur Wright

Akina Wright (Wright brothers) ni namna ya kutaja ndugu Orville Wright (19 Agosti 1871 - 30 Januari 1948) na Wilbur Wright (16 Aprili 1867 - 30 Mei 1912) wanaoaminiwa na wengi kuwa walibuni na kurusha eropleni ya kwanza yenye injini iliyoweza kuongozwa mnamo 17 Desemba 1903. [1] Hata hivyo, madai hayo yamepingwa kwa kurejelea wavumbuzi wengine waliofanya majaribio na eropleni katika miaka iliyotangulia[2].

Maisha ya awali[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Ndugu Wrights walikulia nchini Marekani huko Dayton, Ohio. Walikuwa wana wa mchungaji [3] aliyewahamasisha kusoma na kuuliza maswali.

Baada ya shule ya sekondari hawakusoma chuoni bali walianzisha gazeti[4]. Baada ya hapo, walianzisha duka la kujenga na kutengeneza baisikeli. [5]

Kujifunza jinsi ya kuruka[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Kufikia miaka ya 1890, akina Wrights walipendezwa na kuruka, hasa baada ya kusikia kuhusu jitihada za Otto Lilienthal huko Ujerumani. Walianza majaribio ya kutengeneza ndege katika duka lao la baiskeli. [6] Walielewa changamoto kubwa ilikuwa kudhibiti ndege ikiwa hewani, maana Lilienthal na wengine walikuwa wamekufa wakati hawakuweza kudhibiti ndege zao.

Kuanzia mwaka 1900 hadi 1902, waliunda nyiririko huko Dayton na kuzijaribisha pale Kitty Hawk penye upepo wenye nguvu na wa kudumu.

Kuruka[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Picha ya ndege ya kwanza na Orville Wright kwenye vidhibiti na Wilbur Wright akikimbia kando yake.

Tangu 1903 waliweka injini ndogo na parapela kwenye eropleni zao. Jaribio lililofaulu hutajwa kutokea 14 Desemba 1903, ambako Wilbur alikaa hewani kwa sekunde tatu. Karika siku zilizofuata, waliruka tena na hadi mwaka 1904 waliweza kukaa hewani tayari dakika moja na nusu na kumaliza mviringo hewani. [3] Mwaka 1905 walitegeneza ndege yao ya tatu iliyoweza kukaa hewani kwa kilomita 39.4 katika muda wa dakika 38.

Akina Wright hawakutangaza kazi yao kwa sababu walitaka kuanza biashara wakiogopa watu wengine watatumia mbinu zao na kuzitumia kwa ndege za wenyewe. Hatimaye waliridhika walifika mahali walifanya maonyesho kwa ajili ya jeshi la Marekani na serikali ya Ufaransa kwenye mwaka 1908. [7]

Baada ya hapo, walianzisha kampuni ya kujenga ndege. Wakati wa Vita Kuu ya Kwanza ya Dunia Wilbur alifariki. Orville aliendelea kufanya kazi ili kuweka sifa yake kama mtu wa kwanza kuruka. Baadaye aliuza kampuni yake akipumzika. Alifariki mnamo 1948.

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. The Fédération Aéronautique Internationale is the standard setting and record-keeping body for aeronautics and astronautics worldwide. They officially said the Wright brothers flight was "the first sustained and controlled heavier-than-air powered flight".
  2. http://wright-brothers.wikidot.com/
  3. 3.0 3.1 Telegram from Orville Wright in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, to His Father Announcing Four Successful Flights, 1903 December 17. World Digital Library (1903-12-17). Iliwekwa mnamo 2013-07-22. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "WDL" defined multiple times with different content
  4. What Dreams We Have
  5. The Van Cleve Bicycle that the Wrights Built and Sold. U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission. Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 2012-10-08. Iliwekwa mnamo 2009-05-22.
  6. Wilbur Wright Working in the Bicycle Shop. World Digital Library (1897). Iliwekwa mnamo 2013-07-22.
  7. "L'Aerophile," August 11, 1908, quoted in Crouch, p. 368. Demonstration flights were made Aug. 8-15, 1908. (Crouch, p. 366-7.).

Viungo vya Nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Commons-logo.svg
Wikimedia Commons ina media kuhusu:

Maisha yao[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Leseni[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Makumbusho[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Picha[hariri | hariri chanzo]