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Ziwa Van

Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru
Ramani ya Ziwa Van
Ziwa Van pamoja na kanisa kwenye kisiwa cha Akdamar

Ziwa Van (kwa Kituruki: Van Gölü; kwa Kikurdi: Gola Wanêkwa; kwa Kiarmenia: Վանա լիճ, Vana lič̣) ni ziwa kubwa la chumvi na ziwa kubwa zaidi nchini Uturuki, mashariki mwa nchi.

Jiografia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Ziwa Van iko katika nyanda za juu kwenye kimo cha mita 1,640. Linapokea maji yake kutoka milima jirani lakini hakuna njia ya maji kutoka; mto uliotoka zamani ulifungwa na miamba ya volkeno miaka milioni iliyopita.

Umbali kati ya miji Tatvan upande wa magharibi na Van upande wa mashariki ni kilomita 93, umbali mkubwa wa magharibi hadi mwisho wa hori upande wa mashariki ni km 127. Umbali mkubwa kutoka kaskazini hadi kusini ni km 52.

Kina kirefu ni mita 451.

Kuna feri ya reli inayozunguka baina ya Tatvan na Van. Treni za kimataifa baina ya Uturuki na Iran zinavuka hapa.

Chumvi na ekolojia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Maji yake ni ya chumvichumvi, takriban nusunusu magadi na NaCl. Maji huwa kwa wastani na thamani pH ya 9.8. [1]

Kiwango cha magadi kwenye ziwa kinabadilika kufuatana na majira, pia ni tofauti kufuatana na kina cha maji. Maji yenye chumvi nyingi ni mazito zaidi, hivyo maji ya usoni hayana magadi mengi sawa na maji ya chini. Pia sehemu karibu na ufuko ambako mito inaingia huwa na maji matamu kuliko eneo la katikati.

Kuna spishi moja ya samaki pekee (alburnus tarichi) inayopatikana katika ziwa; wakati wa kuzaa wanarudi kwenye midomo ya mito ambako kiasi cha maji matamu ni cha juu zaidi, baadaye wanaweza kurudi katika sehemu ambako kiwango cha magadi ni juu kiasi.

Kuna aina nyingi za planktoni.

Ramani inaonyesha lugha za mazingira ya Ziwa Van kabla ya maangamizi ya Waarmenia; kibichi ni wasemaji wa Kiarmenia, njano ni Wakurdi.

Historia na utamaduni[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Katika milenia ya kwanza KK Ziwa Van lilikuwa sehemu ya milki ya Urartu.

Tangu karne ya 3 KK Ziwa Van lilikuwa katikati ya maeneo yaliyokaliwa na Waarmenia. Ushuhuda wake hadi leo ni monasteri ya Kiarmenia kwenye kisiwa cha Akdamar. Tangu maangamizi ya Waarmenia taifa hilo halipo tena hapa lakini watalii wengi Waarmenia wanatembelea Akdamar.

Siki hizi kuna Wakurdi wengi katika mazingira ya ziwa.

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. Andreas Reimer, Günter Landmann & Stephan Kempe, Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia, hydrochemistry and history. Aquatic Geochemistry 15: 195-222, 2009

Tovuti za Nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Wikimedia Commons ina media kuhusu:
  • "Ancient castle studied in Lake Van", Hürriyet Daily News (kwa Kiingereza), iliwekwa mnamo 27 Februari 2018{{citation}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • APA (27 Julai 2007), "Turkey, Iran agree on joint railway", Yeni Şafak, ilihifadhiwa kwenye nyaraka kutoka chanzo mnamo 2012-10-23, iliwekwa mnamo 2019-10-14 {{citation}}: Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Coskun, M.; Musaoğlu, N. (2004), "Investigation of Rainfall-Runoff Modelling of the Van Lake Catchment by Using Remote Sensing and GIS Integration" (PDF), Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, ilihifadhiwa kwenye nyaraka kutoka chanzo (PDF) mnamo 2008-10-03, iliwekwa mnamo 2019-10-14 {{citation}}: Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  • Cottrell, Leonard (1960), The Concise Encyclopædia of Archaeology
  • Degens, E.T.; Wong, H.K.; Kempe, S.; Kurtman, F. (Juni 1984), "A geological study of Lake Van, eastern Turkey", International Journal of Earth Sciences, 73 (2), Springer: 701–734, doi:10.1007/BF01824978, ilihifadhiwa kwenye nyaraka kutoka chanzo mnamo 2009-06-16, iliwekwa mnamo 2019-10-14 {{citation}}: Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Ebeling, Erich; Meissner, Bruno (1997), Reallexikon der Assyriologie und vorderasiatischen Archäologie [Lexicon of Assyriology and Near Eastern Archeology] (kwa Kijerumani), Berlin: de Gruyter, uk. 2, ISBN 978-3110148091
  • Gibbens, Sarah (15 Novemba 2017), Ancient Ruins Discovered Under Lake in Turkey, National Geographic, iliwekwa mnamo 27 Februari 2018{{citation}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Hewsen, Robert H. (Septemba 1997), "The Geography of Armenia", katika Hovannisian, Richard G. (mhr.), The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, juz. Volume I – The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century, New York: St. Martin's Press, ku. 1–17, ISBN 978-0-312-10169-5 {{citation}}: |volume= has extra text (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link) CS1 maint: ref duplicates default (link)
  • Kempe, S.; Degens, E.T. (1978), "Lake Van varve record: the past 10,420 years", katika Degens, E.T.; Kurtman, F. (whr.), Geology of Lake Van, Ankara: MTA Press, ku. 56–63
  • Kempe, S.; Kazmierczak, J.; Landmann, G.; Konuk, T.; Reimer, A.; Lipp, A. (14 Februari 1991), "Largest known microbialites discovered in Lake Van, Turkey", Nature, 349 (6310): 605–608, doi:10.1038/349605a0{{citation}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • "Lake Van", The New Encyclopædia Britannica, 1998
  • Landmann, Günter; Reimera, Andreas; Lemcke, Gerry; Kempe, Stephan (Juni 1996), "Dating Late Glacial abrupt climate changes in the 14,570 yr long continuous varve record of Lake Van, Turkey", Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 122 (1–4), Elsevier Science B.V.: 107–118, doi:10.1016/0031-0182(95)00101-8{{citation}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Mina, Muhammed (19 Desemba 2015), Türkiye'nin en büyük feribotu Van Gölü'nde deneme seferine çıktı [Turkey's Largest Ferry Begins Trial Voyage on Lake Van] (kwa Kituruki), Hürriyet, iliwekwa mnamo 4 Juni 2016{{citation}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Oktay, Yüksel (8 Mei 2007), On the Roads of Anatolia — Van, Los Angeles Chronicle, ilihifadhiwa kwenye nyaraka kutoka chanzo mnamo 28 Septemba 2007{{citation}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Oswald, Felix (1906), A Treatise on the Geology of Armenia
  • Sarı, Mustafa (2006), Inci Kefalı Summary, Doğa Gözcüleri Derneği, ilihifadhiwa kwenye nyaraka kutoka chanzo mnamo 11 Januari 2008{{citation}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Sarı, Mustafa (2008), "Threatened fishes of the world: Chalcalburnus tarichi (Pallas 1811) (Cyprinidae) living in the highly alkaline Lake Van, Turkey", Environmental Biology of Fishes, 81 (1), Springer Netherlands: 21–23, doi:10.1007/s10641-006-9154-9
  • Toker, Mustafa; Sengör, Ali Mehmet Celal; Demirel Schluter, Filiz; Demirbağ, Emin; Çukur, Deniz; İmren, Caner; Niessen, Frank (Mei 2017), "The structural elements and tectonics of the Lake Van basin (Eastern Anatolia) from multi-channel seismic reflection profiles", Journal of African Earth Sciences, 129: 165–178, doi:10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2017.01.002{{citation}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Tomonaga, Yama; Brennwald, Matthias S.; Kipfer, Rolf (2011), "Spatial distribution and flux of terrigenic He dissolved in the sediment pore water of Lake Van (Turkey)", Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75 (10): 2848–2864, doi:10.1016/j.gca.2011.02.038
  • UNESCO, Tentative World Heritage Sites
  • University of Bonn (15 Machi 2007), Turkey's Lake Van Provides Precise Insights Into Eurasia's Climate History, Science Daily{{citation}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link) CS1 maint: ref duplicates default (link)
  • Warren, J.K. (2006), Evaporites: Sediments, Resources and Hydrocarbons, Springer, ISBN 978-3-540-26011-0
  • Wong, H.K.; Degens, E.T. (1978), "The bathymetry of Lake Van, eastern Turkey", Geology of Lake Van, Ankara: General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, ku. 6–10