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Wakurdi

Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru
Wakurdi
Kurd کورد
Roj emblem.svg
Watu kwa jumla
milioni 30–40 [1]


(The World Factbook, 2015 estimate)
milioni 36.4–45.6 [2]
(Kurdish Institute of Paris, 2017 estimate)

Maeneo penye idadi kubwa kiasi
Maeneo ambako Wakurdi wako wakazi asilia
 Uturuki est. 14.3–20 million [1][2]
 Uajemi est. 8.2–12 million [1][2]
 Iraq est. 5.6–8.5 million [1][2]
 Syria est. 2–3.6 million [1][2]
Wakurdi nje ya maeneo ya asili (nje ya Kurdistan penyewe) 2 million
 Ujerumani 800,000 [3]
 Ufaransa 150,000 [4]
 Uswidi 83,600 [5]
 Uholanzi 70,000 [6]
 Ubelgiji 50,000 [7]
 Urusi 63,800 [8]
 Ufalme wa Muungano 50,000 [9]
 Kazakhstan 42,300 [10]
 Uswisi 35,000 [11]
 Denmark 30,000 [12]
 Jordan 30,000 [13]
 Austria 23,000 [14]
 Ugiriki 22,000 [15]
 Marekani 15,400
 Georgia 13,861 [16]
 Kyrgyzstan 13,200 [17]
 Kanada 11,685
 Ufini 10,700 [18]
 Australia 7,000 [19]
 Azerbaijan 6,100 [20]
 Armenia 2,162 [21]
Makundi yaliyo karibu kiukoo au kiutamaduni

Other Iranian peoples

Wakurdi (kwa Kikurdi: گەلی کورد, Gelî kurd) ni watu wanaotumia lugha ya Kikurdi, moja kati ya lugha za Kihindi-Kiajemi[22] wanaoishi hasa Mashariki ya Kati.

Kurdistan[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Eneo lao linaitwa mara nyingi Kurdistan na limegawanyika kisiasa kati ya nchi za Uturuki mashariki, Iran kaskazini magharibi, Iraq kaskazini na Syria kaskazini.[23]

Hadi Vita Kuu ya Kwanza ya Dunia, Wakurdi wengi waliishi ndani ya maeneo ya Milki ya Osmani, idadi ndogo zaidi walitawaliwa na Uajemi. Milki zote mbili zilikuwa milki za Kiislamu ambako hakukuwa na mkazo wa utaifa au utamaduni maalumu. Hawakuwa na historia ya kujitazama kama taifa la pamoja wakiishi katika utaratibu wa jamii za kikabila zilizojitegemea na kutunza kiwango cha uhuru kutoka serikali za milki walimoishi.

Katika kongamano la kupatana amani baada ya Vita Kuu ya Kwanza suala la Wakurdi lilijadiliwa lakini bila kupata suluhisho. Waligawanywa tu.

Baada ya ugawaji wa Milki ya Osmani mwaka 1918 walijikuta katika nchi ambako watu wengi walikuwa ama Waturuki, Waarabu au Waajemi walioathiriwa na itikadi ya utaifa. Wakurdi waliambiwa kujitazama kama raia wa nchi hizo na hivyo kuwa Waturuki, Waarabu au Waajemi. Hasa ndani ya Uturuki chini ya rais wa kwanza Ataturk kuwepo kwa Wakurdi kulikanwa, wenyewe waliitwa "Waturuki wa milimani". pote walikataliwa kuwa na shule ambako watoto wao wangejifunza lugha ya Kikurdi.

Katika historia hii uko msingi wa upinzani wa Wakurdi uliotokea katika nchi zote wanapoishi kiasili.

Idadi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Idadi yao inakadiriwa kuwa milioni 30-45.[24] Ndilo taifa kubwa kuliko lote duniani lisilo na nchi huru ya kwao.

Lugha na dini[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Lugha yao ni Kikurdi, chenye lahaja mbalimbali[25][26].

Wengi wao hufuata dini ya Uislamu (hasa madhehebu ya Wasunni), lakini wako pia wafuasi wa dini ya jadi wanaoitwa Wayazidi, wafuasi wa imani ya pekee ya Ahl-e Hak, halafu Wakristo, Wayahudi na Wazoroasta wachache.

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 World Factbook (toleo la Online). Langley, Virginia: US Central Intelligence Agency. 2015. ISSN 1553-8133. Ilihifadhiwa kwenye nyaraka kutoka chanzo mnamo 2009-09-12. Iliwekwa mnamo 2 Agosti 2015. {{cite book}}: Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link) A rough estimate in this edition gives populations of 14.3 million in Turkey, 8.2 million in Iran, about 5.6 to 7.4 million in Iraq, and less than 2 million in Syria, which adds up to approximately 28–30 million Kurds in Kurdistan or in adjacent regions. The CIA estimates are as of Agosti 2015 – Turkey: Kurdish 18%, of 81.6 million; Iran: Kurd 10%, of 81.82 million; Iraq: Kurdish 15–20%, of 37.01 million, Syria: Kurds, Armenians, and other 9.7%, of 17.01 million.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 The Kurdish Population by the Kurdish Institute of Paris, 2017 estimate. The Kurdish population is estimated at 15–20 million in Turkey, 10–12 million in Iran, 8–8.5 million in Iraq, 3–3.6 million in Syria, 1.2–1.5 million in the European diaspora, and 400k–500k in the former USSR - for a total of 36.4 million to 45. 6 million globally.
  3. "Camps built in Germany, Austria to win new members for PKK, reports reveal", 9 August 2012. Retrieved on 28 October 2012. Archived from the original on 9 August 2012. 
  4. "3 Kurdish women political activists shot dead in Paris", 11 January 2013. Retrieved on 9 June 2014. 
  5. "Sweden". Ethnologue. 2015. Iliwekwa mnamo 14 Januari 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  6. Highway to Hell: Dutch biker gang prepare to take on Islamic State by Jerry Lawton, Daily Star, October 2014
  7. "The Kurdish Diaspora". Institut Kurde de Paris. Iliwekwa mnamo 9 Juni 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  8. "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 г. Национальный состав населения Российской Федерации". Demoscope.ru. Ilihifadhiwa kwenye nyaraka kutoka chanzo mnamo 30 Mei 2012. Iliwekwa mnamo 4 Julai 2012. {{cite web}}: Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  9. "QS211EW – Ethnic group (detailed)". NOMISweb.co.uk. UK Office for National Statistics. Iliwekwa mnamo 3 Agosti 2013.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  10. Численность населения Республики Казахстан по отдельным этносам на начало 2014 года Archived 28 Aprili 2015 at the Wayback Machine. ЭТНОДЕМОГРАФИЧЕСКИЙ ЕЖЕГОДНИК КАЗАХСТАНА 2014
  11. "Switzerland". Ethnologue. Iliwekwa mnamo 14 Januari 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  12. "Fakta: Kurdere i Danmark", 8 May 2006. Retrieved on 24 December 2013. (Danish) 
  13. Al-Khatib, Mahmoud A.; Al-Ali, Mohammed N. "Language and Cultural Shift Among the Kurds of Jordan" (PDF). uk. 12. Iliwekwa mnamo 10 Novemba 2012.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  14. "Austria". Ethnologue. Iliwekwa mnamo 14 Januari 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  15. "Greece". Ethnologue. Iliwekwa mnamo 14 Januari 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  16. PDF. "Population/Census" (PDF). geostat.ge. Ilihifadhiwa kwenye nyaraka kutoka chanzo (PDF) mnamo 2017-10-10. Iliwekwa mnamo 2019-03-24.
  17. "Number of resident population by selected nationality" (PDF). UNStats.UN.org. United Nations. Ilihifadhiwa kwenye nyaraka kutoka chanzo (PDF) mnamo 10 Julai 2012. Iliwekwa mnamo 9 Julai 2012. {{cite web}}: Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  18. "Language according to age and sex by region 1990–2014". Stat.fi. Statistics Finland. Ilihifadhiwa kwenye nyaraka kutoka chanzo mnamo 17 Februari 2013. Iliwekwa mnamo 19 Januari 2013. {{cite web}}: More than one of |archivedate= na |archive-date= specified (help); More than one of |archiveurl= na |archive-url= specified (help); Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  19. The People of Australia: Statistics from the 2011 census (PDF). Australian Department of Immigration and Border Protection. 2014. ISBN 978-1-920996-23-9. Ilihifadhiwa kwenye nyaraka kutoka chanzo (PDF) mnamo 29 Mei 2014. Iliwekwa mnamo 29 Mei 2014. {{cite book}}: Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  20. Statistical Yearbook of Azerbaijan 2014. 2015. uk. 80.
  21. "Information from the 2011 Armenian National Census" (PDF). Statistics of Armenia (kwa Armenian). Iliwekwa mnamo 27 Mei 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link) CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  22. Izady, Mehrdad R. (1992). The Kurds: A Concise Handbook. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-8448-1727-9.
  23. Kurdish Awakening: Nation Building in a Fragmented Homeland, (2014), by Ofra Bengio, University of Texas Press
  24. Based on arithmetic from World Factbook and other sources cited herein: A Near Eastern population of 28–30 million, plus approximately a 2 million diaspora gives 30–32 million. If the highest (25%) estimate for the Kurdish population of Turkey, in Mackey (2002), proves correct, this would raise the total to around 37 million.
  25. "Kurds". The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Encyclopedia.com. 2014. Iliwekwa mnamo 29 Desemba 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  26. Izady, Mehrdad R. (1992). The Kurds: A Concise Handbook. Taylor & Francis. uk. 198. ISBN 978-0-8448-1727-9.

Vyanzo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Aslanian, Sebouh (2011). From the Indian Ocean to the Mediterranean: The Global Trade Networks of Armenian Merchants from New Julfa. California: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520947573. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)
  • Blow, David (2009). Shah Abbas: The Ruthless King Who Became an Iranian Legend. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-0857716767. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)
  • Bournoutian, George (2002). A Concise History of the Armenian People: (from Ancient Times to the Present) (toleo la 2). Mazda Publishers. uk. 208. ISBN 978-1568591414. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)
  • Floor, Willem; Herzig, Edmund (2012). Iran and the World in the Safavid Age. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1850439301. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)
  • Barth, F. 1953. Principles of Social Organization in Southern Kurdistan. Bulletin of the University Ethnographic Museum 7. Oslo.
  • Hansen, H.H. 1961. The Kurdish Woman's Life. Copenhagen. Ethnographic Museum Record 7:1–213.
  • Leach, E.R. 1938. Social and Economic Organization of the Rowanduz Kurds. London School of Economics Monographs on Social Anthropology 3:1–74.
  • Longrigg, S.H. 1953. Iraq, 1900–1950. London.
  • Masters, W.M. 1953. Rowanduz. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan.
  • McKiernan, Kevin. 2006. The Kurds, a People in Search of Their Homeland. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN|978-0-312-32546-6
  • Mikaberidze, Alexander (2015). Historical Dictionary of Georgia (toleo la 2). Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1442241466. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)
  • Matthee, Rudi. "ŠAYḴ-ʿALI KHAN ZANGANA". Encyclopaedia Iranica. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/shaykh-ali-khan.

Marejeo mengine[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Historia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Maxwell, Alexander; Smith, Tim (2015). "Positing 'not-yet-nationalism': limits to the impact of nationalism theory on Kurdish historiography". Nationalities Papers. 43 (5): 771–787. doi:10.1080/00905992.2015.1049135.

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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