Mikhail Lomonosov

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Mikhail Lomonosov

Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov (19 Novemba 1711 - 15 Aprili 1765) alikuwa mwanasayansi, mtaalamu wa fani nyingi na mshairi kutoka nchini Urusi. Alitoa michango muhimu katika fasihi, elimu, na sayansi.

Alitambua mengi katika fani za kemia, fizikia, madini, historia, sanaa, isimu, vifaa vya elimunuru na vingine. Kati yake kulikuwa na angahewa ya Zuhura, katika fizikia kanuni ya hifadhi ya masi katika mmenyuko wa kikemia.

Lomonosov alikuwa pia mshairi na aliathiri maendeleo ya lugha ya fasihi ya Kirusi cha kisasa.

Maisha ya familia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Lomonosov alizaliwa katika kijiji cha Mishaninskaya (baadaye kilipewa jina la Lomonosovo kwa heshima yake) katika Arhangelsk Oblast katika kaskazini mwa Urusi. Baba yake, Vasily Dorofeyevich Lomonosov, alikuwa mkulima na mvuvi aliyeendelea kumili meli ya mtoni aliyesafirisha mizigo kutoka Arhangelsk kwenda Kola, na Lapland. Mamake Lomonosov alikuwa Elena Ivanovna Sivkova, mke wa kwanza wa Vasily, binti wa padre orthodoksi.

Aliishi Denisovka hadi alipotimia umri wa miaka kumi, halafu alianza kumsidikiza baba kwenye safari zake za kibiashara.

Alipenda kusoma tangu utotoni lakini alikosa nafasi ya kusoma shule. Padre wa kijiji alimfundisha kusoma na kwa miaka kadhaa vitabu vya pekee vilivyopatikana kwake vilikuwa vitabu vya kidini. Alipokuwa na miaka 14 alipewa nakala ya sarufi ya Kirusi na kitabu cha hisabati. Lomonosov aliendelea mkrsto wa Kanisa la Kiorthodoksi la Urusi maisha yake yote.kuwa mwinjili wa Kirusi maisha yake yote. [1] [2]

Mnamo 1724, baba yake alipooa kwa mara ya tatu na ya mwisho, Lomonosov alikuwa na uhusiano mgumu na mama yake wa kambo Irina. Hivyo alipata hamu ya kuondoka nyumbani.

Masomo huko Moscow na Kiev[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Nyumba ya Lomonosov huko Marburg, Ujerumani.

Mnamo 1730, akiwa na miaka kumi na tisa, Lomonosov alitmbea kwa miguu hadi Moscow kwa sababu alikuwa amedhamiria "kusoma sayansi". Alikubaliwa katika shule ya juu ya Moscow.

Lomonosov alikuwa maskini akiishi kwenye makisio ya kopeki tatu pekee kwa siku akala mkate mweusi tu. Lakini alikuwa na maendeleo mazuri kielimu, katika miaka mitano alimaliza masomo ya kozi ya miaka 12. Alipomaliza 1736 kwa matokeo mazuri alipewa msaada wa masomo kwenye Chuo Kikuu cha Petersburg. Hapa alitumwa mara moja kusoma nje ya Urusi kwenye Chuo Kikuu cha Marburg, Ujerumani.

Elimu nje ya nchi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Chuo Kikuu cha Marburg ilkuwa miongoni mwa vyuo maarufu zaidi vya Ulaya katika katikati ya karne ya 18 kutokana na kuwepo kwa mwanafalsafa Christian Wolff aliyekuwa mwakilishi muhimu wa Zama za Mwangaza nchini Ujerumani. Lomonosov alikuwa mwanafunzi wa Wolff huko Marburg kutoka Novemba 1736 hadi Julai 1739. Kipindi hiki kilikuwa na athira kuu katika maisha ya mtaalamu. Mnamo 1739-1740 aliendelea na masomo kwenye Chuo cha Freiberg, Saksonia, Ujerumani. Hapa alipata elimu ya madini, metali na uchimbaji madini.

Mozaiki ya Lomonosov inaonyesha Mapigano ya Poltava .

Lomonosov alijifunza haraka Kijerumani na pamoja na zaidi ya falsafa, alisoma kemia kwa undani. Alianza pia kutunga mashairi. Lakini hakupatana vem na profesa wake pale Freiberg, pia alipata pesa kidogo tu kutoka Urusi.

Wakati wa kukaa Freiberg aliishi katika nyumba ya familia alipoanza kumpenda binti Elisabeth Christine. Alimwoa katika Juni 1740 na aliporudi Urusi mwaka 1741, mke wake alimfuata baadaye pamoja na mtoto wao. .

[ <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (April 2018)">onesha inahitajika</span> ]

Kurudi Urusi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Lomonosov alirudi Urusi mnamo Juni 1741 kwa kutunga tasnifu ya uzamivu (PhD).

1745 aliewa nafasi ya uprofesa wa kemia kwenye Chuo kikuu cha Petersburg. Alianzisha maabara ya kemia ya kwanza ya chuo hiki.[3] 1755 alishirikiana pamoja na mkabaila SHuvalov kuunda Chuo Kikuu cha Moscow.

1760 alichaguliwa kuwa mkuu wa Akademia ya Sayansi ya Petersburg. Aliaga dunia mwaka 1765 akiwa na umri wa miaka 54.

Lomonosov anakumbukwa kama "Baba wa Sayansi ya Urusi". [4]

Fizikia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Catherine II wa Urusi anatembelea Mikhail Lomonosov mnamo 1764. 1884 uchoraji na Ivan Feodorov.

Mnamo 1756, Lomonosov alijfanya jaribio lililoonyesha kwamba masi haibadiliki katika mmenyuko wa kikemia. Hadi wakati ule wataalamu wengi walifundisha kuna jambo katika maada linalopotea wakati wa kuchoma kitu wakaeleza hivyo kwamba majivu ni nyepesi kuliko kile kinachochomwa. Lomonosov alifanya jaribio kwa kuchoma metali katika vyombo vilivyofungwa kabisa bila kuruhusu hewa kuingia, akaonyesha hakuna badiliko la masi.

Hiyo ndiyo Kanuni ya Hifadhi ya Masi katika mmenyuko wa kikemia. Matokeo ya Lomonosov yalithibitishwa baadaye na Lavoisier. [5]

Lomonosov alitambua kwamba maada yote imafanywa na vipande vidogo. Wakati ule hapakuwa na makubaliano bado na kuundwa kwa mata kwa atomi na molekuli hakutambuliwa bado. Lomonosoov alijadili vipande vidogo vinavyounda maada, wakati mwingine alitumia pia maneno kama "atomi" na molekuli" lakini bado kwa ufafanuzi kama leo. [6]

Lomonosov aliona joto kama namna ya mwendo.

Astronomia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Lomonosov alikuwa mtu wa kwanza kugundua kuwepo kwa angahewa kwenye sayari ya Zuhura, alipotazama mpito wa Zuhura wa 1761. [7] Alona pete nyembamba ya nuru iliyozunguka duara nyeusi ya sayari iliyoonekana mbele ya Jua - akahisi kuna angahewa.

Kemia na jiolojia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Mnamo 1759 pamoja na mshiriki wake Lomonosov alikuwa mtu wa kwanza kurekodi kuganda kwa zebaki akifanya majaribio nayo. [8] 1745, alichapisha orodha ya madini zaidi ya 3,000, na mnamo 1760, alielezea jinsi gani siwabarafu zinaweza kutokea. Alionyesha sababu ya kuwa hatari kwa meli: barafu ina densiti ndogo kuliko maji hivyo ni sharti asilimia kubwa ya siwabarafu huwa chini ya uso wa maji na haionekani kwa baharia.

Msanii wa mozaiki[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Lomonosov alijivunia kurejesha sanaa ya zamani ya mozaiki. Mnamo 1763, alianzisha kiwanda cha kioo kilichoweza kutu,iwa kwa kuunda mozaiki za vioo vya rangi. Kuna mozaiki 40 vinavyoaminiwa vilibuniwa naye. Mozaiki ya Mapigano ya Poltava ina urefu wa mita 4.8 n pana wa mita 6.4 . [9] [10] [11]

Vitabu vyake[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Tafsiri za Kiingereza
  • Lomonosov, Mikhail (1767). A Chronological Abridgement of the Russian History, Translated by J.G.A.F. for T. Snelling, [London, Printed for T. Snelling]. 
  • Lomonosov, Mikhail (1966). Panegyric to the Sovereign Emperor, Peter the Great., Translated by Ronald Hingley in Marc Raeff, ed. Russian Intellectual History: An Anthology, Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-0391009059. 
  • Lomonosov, Mikhail (1970). Mikhail Vasil'evich Lomonosov on the Corpuscular Theory, Translated by Henry M. Leicester, Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674574205. 
  • Lomonosov, Mikhail (2012). The Appearance of Venus on the Sun, Observed at the St.Petersburg Imperial Academy of Sciences on May 26, 1761, Translated by Vladimir Shiltsev in "Lomonosov's Discovery of Venus Atmosphere in 1761: English Translation of Original Publication with Commentaries". 
  • Lomonosov, Mikhail (2012). On the Strata of the Earth., Translation and commentary by S.M. Rowland and S. Korolev, The Geological Society of America, Special Paper 485. ISBN 978-0-8137-2485-0. 
  • Lomonosov, Mikhail (2017). Oratio De Meteoris Vi Electrica Ortis – Discourse on Atmospheric Phenomena Originating from Electrical Force (1753), Translation and commentary by Vladimir Shiltsev. 
  • Lomonosov, Mikhail (2018). Meditations on Solidity and Fluidity of Bodies (1760), Translation and commentary by Vladimir Shiltsev. 

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. Galina Evgenʹevna Pavlova (1980). Mikhail Vasilievich Lomonosov: his life and work. Mir, 161. “The atheistic direction of Lomonosov's scientific and artistic creativity was not always consistent. His world outlook, just as that of many other representatives of the age of enlightenment, possessed elements of deism according to which God, having created the universe, assumed no control over its development which was governed by the laws of nature. Lomonosov's deism was no chance factor. As Karl Marx aptly put it, deism was the most convenient and easiest way for many materialists of the 17th–18th centuries to abandon religion.” 
  2. Andrew Kahn (2008). Pushkin's Lyric Intelligence. Oxford University Press, 130. ISBN 9780191552939. “No atheistic conclusions spring from 'The Orb of Day has Set' to reverse Lomonosov's deism, but the poem still intrudes a painful gap between man and nature.” 
  3. Cornwell, Neil and Christian, Nicole. Reference Guide to Russian Literature, p. 514. Taylor & Francis: London, 1998
  4. V. Shiltsev, "Mikhail Lomonosov and the dawn of Russian science", Physics Today (February 2012), vol. 65, http://physicstoday.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/PT.3.1438
  5. Pomper, Philip (October 1962). "Lomonosov and the Discovery of the Law of the Conservation of Matter in Chemical Transformations". Ambix 10 (3): 119–127. doi:10.1179/amb.1962.10.3.119 .
  6. Lomonosov, Mikhail Vasil'evich (1959). Mikhail Vasil'evich Lomonosov on the Corpuscular Theory. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 56–57. 
  7. Shiltsev, Vladimir (March 2014). "The 1761 Discovery of Venus' Atmosphere: Lomonosov and Others". Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage 17 (1): 85–112.
  8. Lomonosov M.V. Meditations on Solidity and Fluidity of Bodies (1760) / translation and commentary by Vladimir Shiltsev (2018); https://arxiv.org/abs/1801.00909
  9. Elena Lavrenova. Lomonosov biography. Foxdesign.ru. Iliwekwa mnamo 2 May 2011.
  10. М.В. Ломоносов: к 300-летию со дня рождения. narfu.ru. Iliwekwa mnamo 2 May 2011.
  11. М.А. Безбородое М.В. Ломоносов. Фабрика В Усть-Рудицах. Grokhovs1.chat.ru (5 December 2001). Iliwekwa mnamo 2 May 2011.

Vyanzo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Menshutkin, Boris N. (1952). Russia's Lomonosov, Chemist Courtier, Physicist Poet. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 
  • Crease, Robert; Shiltsev, Vladimir (December 2013). "Pomor Polymath: The Upbringing of Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov, 1711–1730". Physics in Perspective. 15 (4): 391–414.
  • Robert Crease / Vladimir Shiltsev: Fueling Peter's Mill: Mikhail Lomonosov's Educational Training in Russia and Germany, 1731–1741. In: Physics in Perspective, Vol. 20, Issue 3, September 2018, pp. 272–304.
  • [1]

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Beckers, Dominique, "Russian translation of my book on Pensions launched in St.Petersburg" Published on March 25, 2019. https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/russian-translation-my-book-pensions-launched-dominique-beckers Retrieved October 4, 2019