Ildefonso wa Toledo
Ildefonso wa Toledo (kwa Kigothi: Hildefuns; Toledo, Hispania, 607 hivi - Toledo, 23 Januari 667) alikuwa mwanateolojia aliyehudumia kama askofu mkuu wa Toledo miaka 10 ya mwisho ya maisha yake.
Tangu zamani anaheshimiwa kama mtakatifu na babu wa Kanisa.
Sikukuu yake inaadhimishwa kila mwaka tarehe 23 Januari.
Maisha[hariri | hariri chanzo]
Mtoto wa familia maarufu ya Wavisigothi, alipewa ushemasi mwaka 632, lakini baada ya kulenga daraja za juu walivyotaka ndugu zake, aliingia monasteri ya Agali.
Mwaka 650 alichaguliwa abati wake na kutokana na cheo hicho alishiriki mtaguso wa nane wa Toledo na mtaguso na tisa wa Toledo.
Mwaka 657 alichaguliwa kuwa askofu wa mji huo.
Maandishi[hariri | hariri chanzo]
Aliandika kwa ufasaha mkubwa vitabu vingi juu ya mambo mbalimbali, alitunga sala maarufu kwa liturujia, akiheshimu kwa ari ya pekee Bikira Maria Mama wa Mungu. (taz. Patrologia Latina, gombo 78)
Tazama pia[hariri | hariri chanzo]
- Watakatifu wa Agano la Kale
- Orodha ya Watakatifu Wakristo
- Orodha ya Watakatifu wa Afrika
- Orodha ya Watakatifu Wafransisko
- Mababu wa Kanisa
Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]
- ↑ Collins, Visigothic Spain, 147.
- ↑ (1900) The Miracles of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and the Life of Hannâ (Saint Anne), and the Magical Prayers of 'Aheta Mîkâêl: The Ethiopic Texts Edited with English Translations Etc. 2 vols, Lady Meux Manuscripts Nos. 2-5. London: W. Griggs, 10-11.
- ↑ Martyrologium Romanum
- ↑ Jocelyn N. Hillgarth, "Popular Religion in Visigothic Spain," in James, p. 45.
- ↑ Poncelet, Albert. "St. Ildephonsus." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 7. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 9 Mar. 2015
- ↑ Ildefonsus' most important work was his De perpetua virginitate Mariae contra tres infideles, which imitated an earlier work by Jerome, and became the center of Spanish Marian theology. Cfr. M. C. Díaz y Díaz, "Literary Aspects of the Visigothic Liturgy," translated by Robert Richman, Salvador Starling, Jocelyn N. Hillgarth, and Edward James, in James, p. 67. The three heretics reflected the Marian teaching of Eligius, with whom Ildefonsus disagreed theologically. Ildefonsus utilises Isidore's "synonymous method" (or Synonyma Ciceronis) for theological purposes, wherein he repeats every phrase several times in different, although purportedly identical, ways. Cfr. Collins, Visigothic Spain, 163. The identifications reveal the arguments in a rhetorically strong way, and lexicographers study the synonyms Ildefonsus used. Ildefonsus also probably wrote the Visigothic Mass of Ascension, which explains how the benefits received from Christ are richer than the wonders he performed, such as "ascending unaided to the clouds". Cfr. M. C. Díaz y Díaz, "Literary Aspects of the Visigothic Liturgy," translated by Robert Richman, Salvador Starling, Jocelyn N. Hillgarth, and Edward James, in James, p. 69. Theologically, Ildefonsus regarded the Nicene Creed as sufficientem scientiam salutarem (sufficient knowledge for salvation) and as a foedus (compact) between believer and God. Cfr. Jocelyn N. Hillgarth, "Popular Religion in Visigothic Spain," in James, p. 26. Like Isidore of Seville before him, Ildefonsus regarded the creed as forming "two pacts" between God and believer: one renouncing the devil, and another the statement of belief itself. Cfr. Jocelyn N. Hillgarth, "Popular Religion in Visigothic Spain," in James, p. 27. Ildefonsus encouraged frequent Communion, implying that normal practice was infrequent, and insisted upon preparation, which may have discouraged many. Cfr. Jocelyn N. Hillgarth, "Popular Religion in Visigothic Spain," in James, p. 28. Ildefonsus' De viris illustribus is a continuation, in thirteen parts, of a work of Isidore bearing the same name. The book contains no biblical quotations (Jocelyn N. Hillgarth, "Popular Religion in Visigothic Spain," in James, p. 33 n1.), but expands the biographies of famous writers to include illustrious leaders in the Church and government, including Isidore himself (though Ildefonsus appears ignorant of Braulio of Zaragoza's better biography of Isidore). Cfr. Collins, Visigothic Spain, 165. Ildefonsus' edition emphasised the monastic backgrounds of Toledo's earlier bishops (adding seven biographies). Nonetheless, modern editors note his pastoral concern and emphasis on praedicatio (preaching). Cfr. Jocelyn N. Hillgarth, "Popular Religion in Visigothic Spain," in James, p. 19 n1. Ildefonsus' continuation became an important historical source concerning Toledo during the 6th and 7th centuries. Ildefonsus also prepared an anthology of Isidore's works, excluding the Epistula ad Leudefredum. Cfr. Roger E. Reynolds, "The 'Isidorean' Epistula ad Leudefredum: Its Origins, Early Manuscript Tradition, and Editions," in James, p. 258. In his De cognitione baptismi, Ildefonsus explained the biblical origins of the sacrament, as well as Hispanic baptismal practices and important prayers. The work relied on St. Augustine's narrative concerning the psalms, as well as St. Gregory the Great's moral teachings, and St. Isidore's Etymologies. With respect to the latter, Ildefonsus dared to disagree with Isidore concerning Masses for the dead who had not had their last rites. Cfr. Jocelyn N. Hillgarth, "Popular Religion in Visigothic Spain," in James, p. 53 and n4. Julian of Toledo in his Prognosticum followed Ildefonsus in arguing that such could still be effective. Ildefonsus also wrote De progressu spiritualis deserti elaborating on the same themes, analogizing baptism as a personal equivalent to the Israelites crossing the Red Sea, and the beginning of a personal spiritual journey. Several of Ildefonsus's letters to Quiricus of Barcelona survive. Julian of Toledo in the Elogium Ildefonsi mentions two lost works by Ildefonsus: Liber Prosopopoeia Imbecillitatis Propriae and Opusculum de proprietate personarum Patris, et Filii et Spiritus Sancti. The former treatise (on his own imbecility) was probably a confessional monologue or dialogue, and Valerius of Bierzo may have used it as a model. Cfr. Collins, "The 'Autobiographical' Works of Valerius of Bierzo," 432. The latter deals with monothelitism, a heresy of the time. Cfr. Collins, "Julian of Toledo," 8 and n34.
Vyanzo[hariri | hariri chanzo]
- Ildefonsus. De viris illustribus, ed. and trans. by C. Codoñer Merino in Acta Salmanticensia, Filosofía y Letras, 65. Salamanca, 1972.
- Collins, Roger. Visigothic Spain, 409–711. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2004. ISBN|0-631-18185-7.
- Collins, Roger. "The 'Autobiographical' Works of Valerius of Bierzo: their Structure and Purpose." Los Visigodos: Historia y Civilización. ed. A. González Blanco. Murcia: Universidad de Murcia, 1986. Reprinted in Law, Culture and Regionalism in Early Medieval Spain. Variorum, 1992. ISBN|0-86078-308-1.
- Collins, Roger. "Julian of Toledo and the Education of Kings in Late Seventh-Century Spain." Law, Culture and Regionalism in Early Medieval Spain. Variorum, 1992. ISBN|0-86078-308-1. Revised version of "Julian of Toledo and the Royal Succession in Late Seventh Century Spain," Early Medieval Kingship, edd. P. H. Sawyer and I. N. Wood. Leeds: School of History, University of Leeds, 1977.
- James, Edward (ed.) Visigothic Spain: New Approaches. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980. ISBN|0-19-822543-1.
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