Ziwa Maracaibo

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Ziwa Maracaibo
Lake Maracaibo map.png
Nchi zinazopakana Venezuela
Eneo la maji km2 13,512
Kina cha chini m 60
Kimo cha uso wa maji
juu ya UB
m 0
Miji mikubwa ufukoni Maracaibo, Cabimas, Ciudad Ojeda

Ziwa Maracaibo (Kihispania: Lago de Maracaibo) ni eneo kubwa la maji nchini Venezuela karibu na Bahari ya Atlantiki. Limeunganishwa na Bahari Karibi kwa njia ya mfereji wenye upana wa km 5.5. Kupitia mfereji huo maji ya chumvi hungia ndani yake. Kwa upande mwingine ziwa linalishwa na mito mingi. Upande wa kaskazini maji yake huwa ya chumvi-chumvi, upande wa kusini huwa maji matamu. Hivyo lina tabia ya hori ya bahari lakini pia ya ziwa [1] [2] [3] [4]. Kwa kawaida huitwa "ziwa", si "hori"[5].

Jina lake limetokana na mji wa Maracaibo, ambao upo upande wa mashariki mwa mfereji wa kuingia baharini. Pale Maracaibo mfereji huwa na upana wa km 8.5 ukivukwa kwa daraja refu. [6]

Ziwa Maracaibo huwa na vipimo vya km 160 kwa km 110. Idadi ya mito inayoishia humo ni 135 na mkubwa kati yake ni Mto Catatumbo.

Umuhimu wa uchumi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Meli za baharini zinaweza kuingia ndani ya Ziwa Maracaibo na kupeleka mizigo kwenda bandari za Maracaibo na Cabimas.

Tangu mwaka 1914, mafuta ya petroli yamepatikana katika ziwa. Hadi leo ziwa na mazingira yake ni kitovu cha uzalishaji wa mafuta nchini Venezuela. [7] Takribani robo ya wakazi wa Venezuela wanaishi katika bonde karibu na ziwa. [8]

Shida za mazingira[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Ekolojia ya ziwa huwa na matatizo, Miji mikubwa kando yake humwaga majitaka mle. Pia uzalishaji wa mafuta husababisha mara kwa mara machafuko.

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica (16 June 2016). Lake Maracaibo. Encyclopædia Britannica. Iliwekwa mnamo 6 December 2016.
  2. Merriam-Webster (2016). Webster's New Geographical Dictionary. Merriam-Webster, 727. ISBN 0-87779-446-4. 
  3. Times Books (2014). Comprehensive Atlas of the World. HarperCollins, 47. ISBN 978-0-00-755140-8. 
  4. Question Unlimited (2003). Who Wants to Be a Judge at the National Academic Championship?. National Academic Championship. Iliwekwa mnamo 6 December 2016.
  5. John C. Murphy. "Marine Invasions by Non-Sea Snakes, with Thoughts on Terrestrial–Aquatic–Marine Transitions". Integr. Comp. Biol. (Oxford Journals Volume 52, Issue 2 Pp. 217-226.) (52 (2)): 217–226.. doi:10.1093/icb/ics060 . http://icb.oxfordjournals.org/content/52/2/217.full. Retrieved May 10, 2012. "...from Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. The mostly freshwater lake is a remnant of the Orinoco changing course, and has a direct flow of water from the Caribbean through the Strait of Maracaibo and Tablazo Bay.".
  6. Baverstock, Alasdair (11 March 2015). Venezuela’s nightly lightning show. The Guardian. Iliwekwa mnamo 19 April 2015.
  7. Boschetti, Tiziano; Angulo, Beatriz; Cabrera, Frank; Vásquez, Jhaisson; Montero, Ramón Luis (2016). "Hydrogeochemical characterization of oilfield waters from southeast Maracaibo Basin (Venezuela): Diagenetic effects on chemical and isotopic composition". Marine and Petroleum Geology 73: 228-248. doi:10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2016.02.020 . https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264817216300435.
  8. LakeNet - Lakes. www.worldlakes.org.
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