Farakano la Donato

Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru
Rukia: urambazaji, tafuta

Farakano la Donato lilitokea katika Kanisa la mkoa wa Afrika wa Dola la Roma hasa kati ya Waberberi wa Algeria na Tunisia za leo.

Farakano hilo lilikuwa na nguvu hasa katika karne ya 4 na ya 5.

Mizizi yake ni dhuluma za dola hilo dhidi ya Wakristo waliostawi mapema katika eneo hilo, hasa zile za kikatili zaidi zilizoagizwa na Kaisari Diokletiani.

Farakano lilipewa jina la askofu Donato Mkuu aliyeshika msimamo mkali kuhusu kuwasamehe walioasi ili kuokoa uhai wao.

Chanzo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Katika miaka 303-308 Kaisari Diokletiani alijaribu kwa nguvu zote kuharibu Kanisa na kufuta Ukristo. Mbinu moja ilikuwa kukusanya Maandiko matakatifu yote na kuzichoma moto.

Katika miaka hiyo migumu walitokea hata maaskofu kadhaa na wachungaji walioona heri kuwakabidhi askari Maandiko matakatifu kuliko kufa.

Baada ya mateso hayo kwisha na uhuru wa dini kupatikana, Wakristo walioasi au kukana imani walitaka kurudi. Hata wachungaji na maaskofu waliowahi kuwa dhaifu hiyo walipokelewa tena baada ya kutubu.

Ndipo Wakristo wa Karthago walio wengi walikataa kuwakubali tena. Wakiongozwa na Donato walimkataa aliyechaguliwa kuwa Askofu lakini alitoa Maandiko matakatifu kwa serikali akiwa shemasi.

Donato alisititiza ya kwamba aliyeasi hawezi kutoa sakramenti za kweli. Maana yake akibatiza, kuadhimisha kitubio au kutoa ekaristi, hizo huwa si sakramenti.

Walitaka kuongozwa na wale tu waliosimama imara (au labda: waliokuwa na bahati kutokamatwa).

Ndiyo sababu ya farakano, kwani Kanisa Katoliki lilitetea mafundisho ya kuwa kila Mkristo anaweza kuteleza katika dhambi, lakini toba inaponya makosa yote. Wafuasi wa Donato walijitenga wakijiona ndio Kanisa la kweli lenye waumini na viongozi walio safi.

Matokeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Kanisa la Wadonato lilifikia kuwa na maaskofu hadi 200. Wakristo wengi walifuata mafundisho ya Donato, hasa wa asili ya Kiberberi vijijini ambao walijisikia wananyonywa na serikali ya Kiroma waliona Wadonato kama chombo cha upinzani wa kisiasa. Kumbe matatizo ya kisiasa na kikabila yaliingilia kati.

Farakano hilo la Donato lilidhoofisha sana Kanisa la Afrika Kaskazini. Wadonato walijivuna kuwa Wakristo bora kuliko wengine.

Viongozi wa Kanisa Katoliki walikosa mara nyingi upendo wakati wa kuwashughulikia.

Farakano hilo lilikuwa jeraha kubwa katika Ukristo wa Afrika Kaskazini. Walipokuja Waarabu mnamo mwaka 670 walikuta Ukristo uliogawanyika na kudhoofika, hasa baada ya dhuluma za Wavandali (wafuasi wa Ario) dhidi ya Wakristo wenyeji.

Si ajabu kwamba katika sehemu hiyo ya Afrika Ukristo ulipotea baada ya miaka kadhaa ya utawala wa Kiislamu. Pamoja na matatizo yaliyowapata chini ya utawala huo, Wakristo wa sehemu za Karthago (Tunisia na Algeria) walikuwa wamewahi kuona mfano huo mbaya wa Ukristo kwa muda mrefu mno.

ChristianitySymbol.PNG Makala hii kuhusu dini ya Ukristo bado ni mbegu.
Je, unajua kitu kuhusu Farakano la Donato kama historia yake, matokeo au athari zake?
Labda unaona habari katika Wikipedia ya Kiingereza au lugha nyingine zinazofaa kutafsiriwa?
Basi unaweza kuisaidia Wikipedia kwa kuihariri na kuongeza habari.

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Vyanzo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Marejeo mengine[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Cameron, Michael (2001), "Augustine’s Use of the Song of Songs Against the Donatists", in van Fleteren, Frederick, Augustine: Biblical Exegete, New York: Peter Lang .
  • Cantor, Norman F (1995), The Civilization of the Middle Ages .
  • Corcoran, John Anthony (1997), Augustinus Contra Donatistas, Donaldson: Graduate Theological Foundation .
  • Keleher, James P (1961), Saint Augustine’s Notion of Schism in the Donatist Controversy, Mundelein: Saint Mary of the Lake Seminary .
  • Lewis, Gordon R (Spring 1971), "Violence in the Name of Christ: The Significance of Augustine’s Donatist Controversy for Today", Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 14 (2): 103–10 .
  • Paas, Steven (2005), A Conflict on Authority in the Early African Church: Augustine of Hippo and the Donatists, Kachere, Zomba .
  • Park, Jae-Eun (Aug 2013), "Lacking Love or Conveying Love? The Fundamental Roots of the Donatists and Augustine’s Nuanced Treatment of Them", The Reformed Theological Review 72 (2): 103–21 .
  • Russell, Frederick H. (1999), "Persuading the Donatists: Augustine’s Coercion by Words", in Klingshirn, William E, Limits of Ancient Christianity: Essays on Late Antique Thought and Culture in Honor of R. A. Markus, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press .
  • Scalise, Charles J (Fall 1996), "Exegetical Warrants for Religious Persecution: Augustine vs. the Donatists", Review & Expositor 93 (4): 497–506, doi:10.1177/003463739609300405 .
  • Shimmyo, Theodore T (1991), "St Augustine’s Treatment of the Donatist Heresy: An Interpretation", Patristic and Byzantine Review 10 (3): 173–82 .

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

ChristianitySymbol.PNG Makala hii kuhusu dini ya Ukristo bado ni mbegu.
Je, unajua kitu kuhusu Farakano la Donato kama historia yake, matokeo au athari zake?
Labda unaona habari katika Wikipedia ya Kiingereza au lugha nyingine zinazofaa kutafsiriwa?
Basi unaweza kuisaidia Wikipedia kwa kuihariri na kuongeza habari.

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Vyanzo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Marejeo mengine[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Cameron, Michael (2001), "Augustine’s Use of the Song of Songs Against the Donatists", in van Fleteren, Frederick, Augustine: Biblical Exegete, New York: Peter Lang .
  • Cantor, Norman F (1995), The Civilization of the Middle Ages .
  • Corcoran, John Anthony (1997), Augustinus Contra Donatistas, Donaldson: Graduate Theological Foundation .
  • Keleher, James P (1961), Saint Augustine’s Notion of Schism in the Donatist Controversy, Mundelein: Saint Mary of the Lake Seminary .
  • Lewis, Gordon R (Spring 1971), "Violence in the Name of Christ: The Significance of Augustine’s Donatist Controversy for Today", Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 14 (2): 103–10 .
  • Paas, Steven (2005), A Conflict on Authority in the Early African Church: Augustine of Hippo and the Donatists, Kachere, Zomba .
  • Park, Jae-Eun (Aug 2013), "Lacking Love or Conveying Love? The Fundamental Roots of the Donatists and Augustine’s Nuanced Treatment of Them", The Reformed Theological Review 72 (2): 103–21 .
  • Russell, Frederick H. (1999), "Persuading the Donatists: Augustine’s Coercion by Words", in Klingshirn, William E, Limits of Ancient Christianity: Essays on Late Antique Thought and Culture in Honor of R. A. Markus, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press .
  • Scalise, Charles J (Fall 1996), "Exegetical Warrants for Religious Persecution: Augustine vs. the Donatists", Review & Expositor 93 (4): 497–506, doi:10.1177/003463739609300405 .
  • Shimmyo, Theodore T (1991), "St Augustine’s Treatment of the Donatist Heresy: An Interpretation", Patristic and Byzantine Review 10 (3): 173–82 .

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]