Chunusi

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Rukia: urambazaji, tafuta
Chunusi
Mwainisho na taarifa za nje
Chunusi katika mvulana wa miaka 14
ICD-10 L70.0
ICD-9 706.1
DiseasesDB 10765
MedlinePlus 000873
eMedicine derm/2
MeSH D000152

Chunusi (kwa Kilatini na Kiingereza Acne vulgaris) ni hali ya muda mrefu ya ngozi inayodhihirika kupitia sehemu za madoa meusi, madoa meupe, chunisi, ngozi yenye mafuta na wakati mwingine kovu.[1][2]

Sura ya mtu baada ya kupata chunusi inaweza kumsababishia wasiwasi, kiwango cha chini cha kujithamini na katika visa vikali zaidi fadhaiko au hata mawazo ya kujiua.[3][4]

Kisababishi na Pathofiziolojia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Jina la Kiswahili linadokeza imani ya kale ya kwamba chunusi ilitokana na kijana kutunukwa (kutokea kupendwa) na mwingine.

Maelezo ya sayansi ni kama ifuatavyo.

Jeni zinakadiriwa kusababisha asilimia 80 za visa hivi.[2] Si dhahiri kama lishe husababisha hali hii.[2] Hakuna ushahidi wa manufaa ya usafi wala miale ya jua.[2]

Hata hivyo, uvutaji sigara huongeza hatari ya kupata chunusi na kuzidisha ukali wake.[5]

Chunusi mara nyingi huathiri ngozi na idadi kubwa ya tezi za mafuta ikijumuisha uso, sehemu ya juu ya kifua na mgongo.[6]

Wakati wa kubalehe kwa jinsia zote mbili, chunusi mara nyingi husababishwa na ongezeko la androjeni kama vile testosteroni.[7]

Kinga na tiba[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Kuna njia nyingi za matibabu za kupunguza chunusi zikijumuisha kubadili hali ya maisha, taratibu na dawa. Kula kabohaidreti chache na zinazomeng’enywa kwa urahisi, kama vile sukari, kunaweza kusaidia.[8]

Benzoyl peroxide, asidi ya salicili, na asidi ya azela ya kupaka ni dawa zinazotumika mara nyingi.[9] Antibiotiki na retinoidi za kupaka na za kumeza hutumika kutibu chunusi.[9] Hata hivyo, ukinzani dhidi ya antibiotiki unaweza kutokea.[10]

Vidonge vya kudhibiti uzazi vinaweza kuwa bora kwa wanawake.[9] Isotretinoin ya kumeza kwa kawaida hutumika kwa chunusi kali kwa sababu ya uwezekano wa athari kali.[9]

Matibabu ya mapema na hima hupendekezwa na baadhi ya watu ili kupunguza athari jumla za muda mrefu.[4]

Uenezi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Chunusi mara nyingi hutokea katika ubalehe huku ikiathiri takriban asilimia 80–90 ya vijana katika nchi za Magharibi.[11][12][13] Viwango vya chini huripotiwa katika baadhi ya jamii za mashambani.[13][14]

Katika mwaka wa 2010, chunusi ilikadiriwa kuathiri watu milioni 650 duniani kote, hivyo kuufanya kuwa ugonjwa wa 8 unaotokea mara nyingi zaidi ulimwenguni.[15]

Watu pia wanaweza kuathiriwa kabla na baada ya kubaleghe.[16] Ingawa hali hii haitokei mara nyingi kwa watu wazima ikilinganishwa na vijana balehe, takriban nusu ya watu katika miaka ya ishirini na ya thelathini huendelea kuwa na chunusi.[2] Takriban asilimia 4 huendelea kuwa na matatizo haya katika miaka ya arobaini[2]

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. Adityan B, Kumari R, ThappaDM (May 2009). "Scoring systems in acne vulgaris". Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology 75 (3): 323–6. doi:10.4103/0378-6323.51258 . PMID 19439902 .
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Bhate, K; Williams, HC (March 2013). "Epidemiology of acne vulgaris.". The British journal of dermatology 168 (3): 474–85. doi:10.1111/bjd.12149 . PMID 23210645 .
  3. Barnes LE, Levender MM, Fleischer AB Jr, Feldman SR (April 2012). "Quality of life measures for acne patients". Dermatologic Clinics 30 (2): 293–300. doi:10.1016/j.det.2011.11.001 . PMID 22284143 .
  4. 4.0 4.1 Goodman, G (July 2006). "Acne and acne scarring–the case for active and early intervention". Australian family physician 35 (7): 503–4. PMID 16820822 . http://www.racgp.org.au/afp/200607/8194.
  5. Knutsen-Larson S, Dawson AL, Dunnick CA, DellavalleRP (January 2012). "Acne vulgaris: pathogenesis, treatment, and needs assessment". Dermatologic Clinics 30 (1): 99–106. doi:10.1016/j.det.2011.09.001 . PMID 22117871 .
  6. Benner N, Sammons D (September 2013). "Overview of the treatment of acne vulgaris". Osteopathic Family Physician 5 (5): 185–90. doi:10.1016/j.osfp.2013.03.003 .
  7. James WD (April 2005). "Acne". New England Journal of Medicine 352 (14): 1463–72. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp033487 . PMID 15814882 .
  8. Mahmood SN, Bowe WP (April 2014). "Diet and acne update: carbohydrates emerge as the main culprit". Journal of drugs in dermatology: JDD 13 (4): 428–35. PMID 24719062 .
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Titus S, Hodge J (October 2012). "Diagnosis and treatment of acne". American family physician 86 (8): 734–40. PMID 23062156 . http://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1015/p734.html.
  10. Beylot, C; Auffret, N; Poli, F; Claudel, JP; Leccia, MT; Del Giudice, P; Dreno, B (March 2014). "Propionibacterium acnes: an update on its role in the pathogenesis of acne.". Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV 28 (3): 271–8. doi:10.1111/jdv.12224 . PMID 23905540 .
  11. Taylor, Marisa; Gonzalez, Maria; Porter, Rebecca (May–June 2011). "Pathways to inflammation: acne pathophysiology". European Journal of Dermatology 21 (3): 323–33. doi:10.1684/ejd.2011.1357 . PMID 21609898 .
  12. Dawson AL, DellavalleRP (May 2013). "Acne vulgaris". BMJ 346 (5): f2634. doi:10.1136/bmj.f2634 . PMID 23657180 .
  13. 13.0 13.1 Berlin, David J. Goldberg, Alexander L.. Acne and Rosacea Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Treatment.. London: Manson Pub., 8. ISBN 9781840766165. 
  14. Spencer EH, Ferdowsian, Barnard ND (April 2009). "Diet and acne: a review of the evidence.". International Journal of Dermatology 48 (4): 339–47. doi:10.1111/j.1365-4632.2009.04002.x . PMID 19335417 .
  15. Hay, RJ; Johns, NE; Williams, HC; Bolliger, IW; Dellavalle, RP; Margolis, DJ; Marks, R; Naldi, L; Weinstock, MA; Wulf, SK; Michaud, C; J L Murray, C; Naghavi, M (October 2013). "The Global Burden of Skin Disease in 2010: An Analysis of the Prevalence and Impact of Skin Conditions". The Journal of investigative dermatology 134 (6): 1527–34. doi:10.1038/jid.2013.446 . PMID 24166134 .
  16. Admani S, Barrio VR (November 2013). "Evaluation and treatment of acne from infancy to preadolescence". Dermatologic therapy 26 (6): 462–6. doi:10.1111/dth.12108 . PMID 24552409 .
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