Waiksosi

Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru
Rukia: urambazaji, tafuta
Waasia wa kwanza walivyochorwa wakiingia MIsri mnamo 1900 KK: kutoka kaburi la Khnumhotep II, afisa wa Farao Senusret II huko Beni Hasan.

Waiksosi (kutoka Kimisri "heqa khaseshet", "watawala wa kigeni"; kupitia Kigiriki Ὑκσώς, Ὑξώς, Yuksos) walikuwa watu mchanganyiko kutoka Asia Magharibi,[1] waliohamia mashariki mwa Delta la Nile kabla ya mwaka 1650 KK. Ujio wao ulikomesha nasaba ya kumi na tatu ya Misri na kuanzisha Kipindi cha kati cha pili.[2]

Uhamiaji wa watu kutoka Kanaani mwishoni mwa nasaba ya kumi na mbili ya Misri (1800 KK hivi) uliwatangulia Waiksosi wenyewe. Wakanaani hao waliunda ufalme wao huko wakati huohuo au mnamo 1720 KK.[3] Hiyo nasaba ya kumi na tatu ya Misri ilitawala mashariki mwa delta wakati mmoja na Nasaba ya kumi na tatu iliyotawala sehemu kubwa ya Misri.

Nguvu ya kutawala ya nasaba hizo ilififia taratibu, pengine kwa sababu ya njaa na tauni,[3][4]

Mnamo 1650 KK, nasaba zote mbili zilishindwa na Waiksosi, walioanzisha nasaba ya kuni na tano ya Misri, halafu wakaenea hadi kusini, walau kwa muda mfupi.[3]

Baadaye nasaba ya kumi na saba ya Misri iliteka Thebes na kutawala kusini, walau kama vibaraka wa Waiksosi.

Hatimaye Seqenenre Tao, Kamose na Ahmose I walipiga vita dhidi ya Waiksosi wakamfukuza kutoka Misri mfalme wao wa mwisho, Khamudi, mnamo 1550 KK.[3]

Waiksosi waliingiza Misri desturi zao mbalimbali, pamoja na teknolojia, muziki, mbegu za mimea na wanyama kutoka Asia.[5][5] Waliingiza vilevile farasi na magari kwa ajili ya vita.[6]

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. Hyksos (Egyptian dynasty). Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.. Iliwekwa mnamo 8 September 2012.
  2. Redford D., Egypt, Canaan and Israel in ancient times, 1992
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 K.S.B. Ryholt: The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c.1800–1550 BC, Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, vol. 20. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997, excerpts available online here.
  4. Manfred Bietak: Egypt and Canaan During the Middle Bronze Age, BASOR 281 (1991), pp. 21-72 see in particular p. 38
  5. 5.0 5.1 Ancient Egypt: The Second Intermediate Period. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.. Iliwekwa mnamo 8 March 2014.
  6. p5. 'The Encyclopedia of Military History' (4th edition 1993), Dupuy & Dupuy.

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Aharoni, Yohanan and Michael Avi-Yonah, The MacMillan Bible Atlas, Revised Edition, pp. 30–31 (1968 & 1977 by Carta Ltd.).
  • von Beckerath, Jürgen. Untersuchungen zur politischen Geschichte der zweiten Zwischenzeit in Ägypten (1965) [Ägyptologische Forschungen, Heft 23]. Basic to any study of this period.
  • Bietak M., Avaris, the Capital of the Hyksos. Recent Excavations at Tell el-Dab'a, 1996
  • Bimson, John J. Redating the Exodus. Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press, 1981. ISBN 0-907459-04-8
  • A History of Israel. Westminster John Knox Press (2000).
  • Charlotte Booth: The Hyksos period in Egypt. Princes Risborough, Shire 2005. ISBN 0-7478-0638-1
  • The Coming of the Greeks: Indo-European Conquests in the Aegean and the Near East. Princeton University Press (1 October 1994).
  • Gardiner, Sir Alan. Egypt of the Pharaohs (1964, 1961). Still the classic work in English. See pp. 61–71 for his examination of chronology.
  • Gibson, David J., Whence Came the Hyksos, Kings of Egypt?, 1962
  • Hayes, William C. "Chronology: Egypt—To End of Twentieth Dynasty," in Chapter 6, Volume 1 of The Cambridge Ancient History, Revised Edition. Cambridge, 1964. With excellent bibliography up to 1964. This is CAH’s chronology volume: A basic work.
  • Hayes, William C. "Egypt: From the Death of Ammenemes III to Seqenenre II," in Chapter 2, Volume 2 of The Cambridge Ancient History, Revised Edition (1965) (Fascicle 6).
  • Helck, Wolfgang. Die Beziehungen Ägyptens zu Vorderasien im 3. und 2. Jahrtausend v. Chr. (1962) [Ägyptologische Abhandlungen, Band 5]. An important review article that should be consulted is by William A. Ward, in Orientalia 33 (1964), pp. 135–140.
  • Hornung, Erik. Untersuchungen zur Chronologie und Geschichte des Neuen Reiches (1964) [Ägyptologische Abhandlungen, Band 11]. With an excellent fold-out comparative chronological table at the back with 18th, 19th, and 20th Dynasty dates.
  • James, T.G.H. "Egypt: From the Expulsion of the Hyksos to Amenophis I," in Chapter 2, Volume 2 of The Cambridge Ancient History, Revised Edition (1965) (Fascicle 34).
  • Montet, Pierre. Eternal Egypt (1964). Translated by Doreen Weightman.
  • Eliezer D. Oren (Hrsg.): The Hyksos, new historical and archaeological perspectives. Kongressbericht. University Museum Philadelphia. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 1997. ISBN 0-924171-46-4
  • Pritchard, James B. (Editor). Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament(ANET), 3rd edition. (1969). This edition has an extensive supplement at the back containing additional translations. The standard collection of excellent English translations of ancient Near Eastern texts.
  • Redford, Donald B. History and Chronology of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt: Seven Studies. (1967).
  • Redford, Donald B. "The Hyksos Invasion in History and Tradition," Orientalia 39 (1970).
  • Redford Donald B. Egypt, Canaan and Israel in ancient times, 1992
  • Redford Donald B. "The Hyksos in history and tradition," Orientalia, 39, 1997, 1-52
  • K. Ryholt. The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period c.1800-1550 B.C. (1997) by Museum Tuscalanum Press.
  • Säve-Söderbergh, T. "The Hyksos Rule in Egypt," Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 37 (1951), pp. 53–71.
  • Van Seters, John. The Hyksos: A New Investigation (1967). Two reviews of this volume should be consulted: Kitchen, Kenneth A. "Further Notes on New Kingdom Chronology and History," in Chronique d’Égypte XLIII, No. 86, 1968, pp. 313–324; and Simpson, William J. Review, in Journal of the American Oriental Society 90 (1970), pp. 314–315.
  • Winlock, H. E. The Rise and Fall of the Middle Kingdom in Thebes (1947). Still a classic with much important information.

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