Mtumiaji:Muddyb/Mohamed Bouazizi

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Muddyb/Mohamed Bouazizi
AmezaliwaTarek al-Tayeb Mohamed Bouazizi[1]
29 Machi 1984(1984-03-29)
Amekufa4 Januari 2011 (umri 26)
Ben Arous, Tunisia
Sababu ya kifoMajelaha ya moto yaliyotoka na kujitoa kafara
AmezikwaMakaburi ya Garaat Bennour
Majina mengineBasboosa
Kazi yakeMmachinga
Anajulikana kwa ajili yaKujitoa kafara

Tarek el-Tayeb Mohamed Bouazizi (Kiarabu: محمد البوعزيزي‎; 29 Machi 1984 – 4 Januari 2011) alikuwa mfanyabiashara mdogomdogo (mmarufu mmachinga) kutoka nchini Tunisia ambaye amejiwasha moto mnamo tarehe 17 Desemba 2010, hali iliyoleta taharuki na hatimaye Mapinduzi ya Tunisia na baadaye kupamba moto kwa Vuguvugu la Uarabuni dhidi ya tawala za kiimla na kidhalimu. Kujitoa kwake kafara, ni tokeo la kuporwa vyombo vyake vya kazi, manyanyaso na masakamo yaliyokuwa yanaelekezwa kwake kutoka kwa polisi wa manishapaa na kikosi chake.

Jazba kutoka kwa wananchi zilipamba moto baada ya kifo cha - Bouazizi, jambo ambalo lilipelekea rais wa wakati huo Zine El Abidine Ben Ali kujiuzuru wadhifa wake kama rais wa nchi mnamo tarehe 14 Januari 2011, baada ya kudumu madarakani kwa takriban miaka 23. Kufanikiwa kwa maandamano ya Tunisia yamevutia nchi nyengine kadhaa za Kiarabu na zile ambazo si za Kiarabu kufanya migomo na maandamano dhidi ya tawala dhalimu. Maandamano haya yaliambatana na watu wengine waliojitoa kafara kwa kufuatia kitendo cha Bouazizi kujitia moto, ikiwa thubutu la kutaka kuuangusha serikali za kiutawala wa kimabavu na kidhalimu. Watu hao na Bouazizi walisifiwa na watoa maoni wa Kiarabu wakiwahesabia kama "mashujaa wafiadini wa mapinduzi ya Mashariki ya Kati mpya".[2]

Mwaka wa 2011, Bouazizi na wenzie wanne walipewa tuzo za Sakharov Prize kwa mchango wao wa "mabadiliko ya kihistoria katika Ulimwengu wa Kiarabu" (tuzo zimetolewa baada ya kifo chao).[3] Serikali ya Tunisia imemuenzi kwa muhuri wa posta wenye sura ya Bouazizi.[4] Gazeti la kila siku la Uingereza - The Times wamemuita Bouazizi kama "Mtu Maarufu wa 2011".[5][6]

Kaburi la Mohamed Bouazizi (mbele kulia)

Wasifu[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Maisha ya awali na mihangaiko ya ajira[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Mohamed Bouazizi, alikuwa akifahamika katika mji wao kama "Basboosa",[7] alizaliwa mjini Sidi Bouzid, Tunisia, mnamo tarehe 29 Machi 1984.[8] Baba yake alikuwa fundi mjenzi huko nchini Libya, alikufa na mshtuko wa moyo wakati huo Bouazizi alikuwa ana umri wa miaka mitatu, na hatimaye mama yake akaja kuolewa na ndugu wa mume kama mrithi.[9] Pamoja na ndugu zake wengine sita, Bouazizi walisomeshwa katika chumba kimoja cha shule nchini humo katika mji wa Sidi Salah, kijiji kidogo 19 kilometres (12 mi) kutoka mji wa Sidi Bouzid.[10] Ingawa baadhi ya vyombo vya habari vimekuwa vikiripoti ya kwamba Bouazizi alipata elimu ya chuo kikuu,[11][12][13] dada yake, Samia Bouazizi, alieleza ya kwamba kaka yake hajahitimu hata elimu ya juu,[14] lakini ya kwamba jambo hilo ndilo hasa alilokuwa analitaka litokee kwake binafsi na dada zake wapate elimu nzuri. Kutokana afya ya mume wa mamake kuwa mgogoro hawezi kufanyakazi kila siku,[15] Ilimlazimu Bouazizi kufanyakazi mbalimbali ili aweze kuhudumia familia tangu akiwa na miaka kumi, na nyakati za mwisho za kuwa bwana mdogo ilimlazimu aache shule ili aweze kufanya kazi muda wote.

Bouazizi aliishi katika nyumba ndogo iliyopigwa plasta ya udongo, mwendo wa dakika 20 kwa mguu hadi kufika mjini kwa Sidi Bouzid,[16][17] mji mdogo vijijini nchini Tunisia uliogubikwa na rushwa[18] , mateso na ukosefu wa ajira umekadiriwa kufikia asilimia 30. Kulingana na mama yake, aliomba kujiunga na jeshi lakini alikataliwa, na baadaye kutuma maombi ya kazi sehemu mbalimbali lakini vilevile ilishindikana. Anamkimu mama yake, mume wa mamake, wadogo zake, ikiwa ni pamoja na kumlipia mmoja kati ya dada zake ada ya chuo kikuu, kwa kupata kiasi cha dola 140 kwa mwezi kwa kufanya biashara ndogondogo katika mitaa ya Sidi Bouzid. Vilevile alikuwa katika hatua za mwisho aweze kujipatia pikapu kwa ajili ya kumsaidia shughuli zake. Mmoja wa marafiki wa karibu wa Bouazizi alipata kusema": "alikuwa anajulikana sana na mtu maarufu ambaye anatoa matunda na mbogamboga bure kwa familia zisizojiweza kabisa".

Kuporwa vifaa vyake vya kazi na kujitoa kafara[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Kulingana na taarifa zilizokuwa zikitolewa na ndugu na jamaa, maafisa wa polisi mara kwa mara walionekana kumlenga na kumnyanyasa Bouazizi kwa miaka kadhaa, ikiwa ni pamoja na kipindi cha utoto wake, mara kadhaa wameonekana wakimpora toroli lake la kazi;[19] lakini Bouazizi hakuwa na mbinu nyingine ya kujipatia kipato ili akimu matatizo ya familia yake, hivyo basi aliendelea kujishughulisha na shughuli ndogondogo pale mtaani. Kunako majira ya saa nne usiku hivi mnamo tarehe 16 Desemba 2010, alikopa kiasi kilichokadiriwa kama dola 200 hivi kwa ajili ya kununua vifaa vya kujifanyia biashara yake atakayoiuza siku inayofuata. Asubuhi ya tarehe 17 Desemba, alianza kazi zake za siku mnamo saa mbili kamili asubuhi. Mnamo saa nne na dakika thelathini asubuhi hiyohiyo, polisi wanaanza tena kumletea zengwe, kisa tu eti alikuwa hana kibali cha kufanyia biashara ndogondogo.[20] Hata hivyo, baadhi ya vyanzo vinaeleza ya kwamba kufanya biashara za mtaani ni marufuku huko nchini Tunisia,[21] wengine wanadai ya kwamba eti Bouazizi alikuwa hana kibali cha kufanyia biashara zake,[22][20] lakini cha ajabu zaidi taarifa zilizotolewa na afisa mkuu wa utoaji vibali vya ajira na biashara huria wa Sidi Bouzid, hakuna kibali cha kufanya biashara ndogondogo katika mji huo.[18]

Bouazizi hakuwa na pesa za kuwahonga maafisa wa polisi ili aendelee kufanya biashara za mtaani.[22][23] Vivo hivyo, ndugu wawili wa Bouazizi waliwashutumu watu wa mamlaka kwa kutaka kujaribu kudhulumu pesa kutoka kwa ndugu yao,[18] na wakati wa mahojiano na Reuters, mmoja wa dada zake alisema, "Unadhani uzuiaji wa namna gani unaoweza kusababisha mpaka bwana mdogo anachukua hatua ya namna hii? Mtu ambaye anailisha familia kwa kufanya biashara ya bidhaa za mali kauli huku wanampiga faini... na kuchukua bidhaa zake. Mjini Sidi Bouzid, hao ambao hawajulikani wala hawana pa kutokea, wala pesa za kuwahonga polisi, hunyanyaswa na kupewa maneno ya karaha ya kwamba hawastahili kuishi."[17]

Familia ya Bouazizi inadai ya kwamba mtoto wao alikuwa ananyanyaswa mbele za watu, huyo mwanamke mwenye miaka 45 ambaye ni afisa wa manispaa, Faida Hamdi,[9][11][19] keshawahi kumzaba kibao, kumtemea mate, na kutaifisha mzani wake wa umeme, na kutupatupa vikapu vyake vya bidhaa.[20] Vilevile imeelezwa alishawahi kumtolea maneno ya kashfa baba yake mzazi ambayue ni marehemu.[17][20] Familia ya Bouazizi inaeleza kuwa, kwa utofauti wa kijinsia, hali hiyo inafanya manyanyaso au mateso kutoka kwa afisa huyo huyo kuwa mabaya zaidi.[11][24]

Faida Hamdi[9][11][19] na kaka yake walidai katika mahojiano mbalimbali kwamba hawajawahi kumzaba kibao wala kumnyanyasa Bouazizi. Jicho moja la ushahidi lililotajwa na Asharq Al-Awsat anadai hahjawahi kuona Hamdi akimchapa kibao Bouazizi.[25][26]

Huku familia ya Bouazizi na mashaidi wengine ambao wamefanya mahojiano na Asharq Al-Awsat wanaeleza ya kwamba Hamdi alishawahi kumdunda mateke na kumpora vikapu vyake vya matunda.[25] Faida Hamdi anasema inaweza kutokea [26] na Asharq Al-Awsat inakataa imefanya.

Bouazizi, alighadhibishwa na kuvamiwa kwake,[27] akaenda kwa ofisi ya gavana kutoa malalamiko yake[20] na kuomba arudishiwe mzani wake.[28] Gavana kakataa kumsikiliza wala kumuona, hata baaada ya Bouazizi kunukuliwa akisema, "kama hutaki kuniona, basi nitajiwasha moto."[20] Bouazizi baadaye akachukua kopo la mafuta ya taa katika sheli iliyokaribu na kurudi ofisini kwa gavana. Akiwa amesimama katikati ya mataa ya trafiki, amesikika akisema kwa sauti, "Unategemea mimi nitaishi vipi?"[28] Halafu akajimwagia mafuta ya taa and kujilipua na kibiriti mnamo saa tano na nusu asubuhi, hata nusu saa haijafika tangu mzozo mkali baina yake na gavana.[20]

Kifo na mazishi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Ben Arous Burn and Trauma Centre where Bouazizi died

Kwa mujibu wa dada wa Bouaziz, ambaye taarifa zake zinatokana na mjomba wake ambaye alikuwa katika eneo la tukio, ghafula watu wakaanza kupatwa na mchecheto alipoanza kuwaka moto, na mmoja kati ya watu hao alijaribu kummwagia maji, jambo ambalo lilipelekea kufanya hali yake kuwa mbaya zaidi.[29] Bouazizi had suffered burns on over 90% of his body before locals managed to stop the flames. He was taken by ambulance to a medical facility in Sidi Bouzid. When they were unable to treat his severe burns, he was taken to a larger hospital in Sfax, more than 110 kilometres (68 mi) away.[22] Later, as the government's interest in his case grew, he was transferred to a Burn and Trauma Centre in Ben Arous, where he was placed in an intensive care unit.[30] On 31 December 2010, doctors at the Ben Arous Burn and Trauma Centre reported that Bouazizi was in stable condition, and that he was showing a positive possibility of recovery.[29] Despite the optimistic prognosis, however, Bouazizi remained comatose until his death.[31]

Bouazizi was visited in the hospital by then-President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali.[32] According to Bouazizi's mother, Ben Ali promised to send him to France for medical treatment,[19] but no such transfer was ever arranged. Bouazizi died at the Ben Arous Burn and Trauma Centre 18 days after the immolation, on 4 January 2011, at 5:30 p.m. local time.[33][34]

It is estimated that more than 5,000 people participated in the funeral procession that began in Sidi Bouzid and continued through to Bouazizi's native village, though police did not allow the procession to pass near the spot at which Bouazizi had burned himself.[35] From the crowd, many were heard chanting "Farewell, Mohamed, we will avenge you. We weep for you today. We will make those who caused your death weep."[36] He was buried at Garaat Bennour cemetery, 15 kilometres (10 mi) from Sidi Bouzid.[37] His grave was described by Al-Jazeera as "simple" and surrounded by cacti, olive, and almond trees.[19] In addition, a Tunisian flag flies next to the site.[38] Tom Chesshyre also describes his tomb after visiting it: small, white, by a row of cacti, and with a simple inscription: "Martyr Mohamed Bouazizi. Peace for his life. And in the next life, have peace as well".[39]

Investigation[hariri | hariri chanzo]

An investigation was launched following Bouazizi's self-immolation to find the details leading up to his actions. On 20 December 2010, it was reported that Faida Hamdi, the female officer who allegedly accosted Bouazizi the day of his immolation, was suspended along with the secretary-general (governor) of Sidi Bouzid,[40] but this was subsequently denied by the latter.[41] Some time later, Hamdi was arrested on orders from President Ben Ali and held in an unspecified town.[9][25] A brother of Hamdi later stated that she had been arrested and detained twice, the first time following Ben Ali's visit to Bouazizi in the hospital and subsequent meeting with his mother and sister at his presidential palace. He says his sister and her aides were released following a short detention and the closing of the investigation which "confirmed her innocence."[25] He said her second arrest was "in response to the demands of the Tunisian protesters," and that the Tunisian security authorities informed him that she was being held only for her own protection and would be released once the protesting ended.[25]

According to Bouazizi's mother, Bouazizi chose to take this action because he had been humiliated, not because of the family's poverty.[20] "It got to him deep inside, it hurt his pride," she said, referring to the police harassment.[19] One of Bouazizi's sisters stated during an interview with Asharq Al-Awsat that their family intends to take legal action against all involved, "whether this is the municipal officers that slapped and insulted him, or the mayor [who] refused to meet him."[25]

On 19 April, the case against Hamdi was dropped after Bouazizi's mother withdrew the family's complaint against her. She stated "It was a difficult but well-thought-out decision to avoid hatred and... [to] help reconcile the residents of Sidi Bouzid." Hamdi had maintained her innocence, telling the court she did not slap Bouazizi, while her lawyer said the matter was "purely a political affair." Bouazizi's brother Salem supported the decision, saying "All the money in the world can't replace the loss of Mohamed who sacrificed himself for freedom and for dignity." Large crowds of people outside the courtroom also appeared to have been satisfied by the Bouazizi family's decision with some claiming Hamdi was being used as a scapegoat.[42][43]

Protests[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Tunisian street protests

Outraged by the events that led to Bouazizi's self-immolation, protests began in Sidi Bouzid within hours,[18] building for more than two weeks, with attempts by police to quiet the unrest serving only to fuel what was quickly becoming a violent and deadly movement.[44] After Bouazizi's death, the protests became widespread, moving into the more affluent areas and eventually into the capital. The anger and violence became so intense that President Ben Ali fled Tunisia with his family on 14 January 2011,[20] trying first to go to Paris, but was refused refuge by the French government. They were eventually welcomed into Saudi Arabia under "a long list of conditions" (such as being barred from participation in the media and politics), ending his 23-year rule and sparking "angry condemnation" among Saudis.[44] In Tunisia, unrest persisted as a new regime took over, leaving many citizens of Tunisia feeling as though their needs were still being ignored.[45]

Aftermath and legacy[hariri | hariri chanzo]

A French protest in support of "the Hero of Tunisia", on 15 January 2011

Many Arabs in the Middle East and North Africa regard Bouazizi as a hero and inspiration.[46][47] He is credited with galvanising the frustrations of the region's youth against their governments into the mass demonstrations, revolts, and revolutions that have become known as the Arab Spring.[48] One year on, Tunisian writer and academic Larbi Sadiki asserted that Bouazizi's self-immolation "changed the course of Arab political history," achieving the "breakthrough in the fight against autocracy." However, he also wrote it would take years before the act and the subsequent chain of events that followed were "profoundly grasped by historians and social scientists."[49]

Bouazizi is considered a martyr by the Progressive Democratic Party (PDP) of Tunisia.[19] Tunisian film director, Mohamed Zran, plans on making a feature film about Bouazizi, describing him as "a symbol for eternity."[48] Tarak Ben Ammar, also a Tunisian film director, intends to make a film on Bouazizi as well, stating he is "a hero for us as Tunisians and the Arab world as a whole."[46]

Since suicide is forbidden in Islam, Bouazizi's self-immolation created controversy among scholarly Muslim circles. While Al-Azhar University, the most prestigious religious institution in the Sunni Muslim world, issued a fatwa ("directive") stating "suicide violates Islam even when it is carried out as a social or political protest," influential Egyptian cleric Yusuf al-Qaradawi spoke sympathetically of Bouazizi.[50]

On 4 February 2011, Bertrand Delanoë, the mayor of Paris, announced that, as a tribute to honour Bouazizi, a square in Paris will be named after him;[51] the Kigezo:Interlanguage link multi was unveiled four days later. On 17 February, the main square in Tunis that was previously called "November 7", after the date of Ben Ali's take-over in 1987, was renamed "January 14," though some had suggested it should honor Bouazizi (though a major roadway leading to the city's airport was renamed for him).[52] Bouazizi was posthumously awarded the 2011 Sakharov Prize as one of "five representatives of the Arab people, in recognition and support of their drive for freedom and human rights".[53] On 17 December, a cart statue was unveiled in Sidi Bouzid in honor of Bouazizi. Tunisia's first elected president Moncef Marzouki attended the ceremony, stating "Thank you to this land, which has been marginalised for centuries, for bringing dignity to the entire Tunisian people."[54] Also, in Sidi Bouzid, as well as in the capital city of Tunis, both cities' respective main streets were renamed, "Boulevard Mohamed Bouazizi".[55] The United Kingdom's The Times newspaper named Bouazizi person of the year for 2011.[56]

"By Fire," a story by Moroccan author Tahar Ben Jelloun inspired by[57] this incident, was published in The New Yorker edition of 16 September 2013.[58] A fictional treatment, some details in the story differ from the factual account. An interview with the author about his story[59] was posted to The New Yorker's "This Week in Fiction" on 9 September 2013.

On 17 December 2015, the Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet, the Nobel Peace Prize laureates of that year, as well as other civil society organizations, celebrated Mohamed Bouazizi and the start of the Arab spring five years after his death in a ceremony in Sidi Bouzid.[60]

Perception[hariri | hariri chanzo]

There are many perceptions on who Mohamed Bouazizi was. After his self-immolation, Bouazizi’s image flooded social media which lead to worldwide discourse. This complicated how Bouazizi was seen, "Mohamed Bouazizi is not our hero. He's your hero," said local Tunisian Arabic Nader Ncibi.[61] There are accusations that social media diluted what Bouazizi stood for. Naafil Harshani, an activist that grew up with Bouazizi, said, "what was important to Mohamed was putting food on the table and football. He had nothing to do with politics and wanted nothing to do with politics."[62] Mohamed Bouazizi did not plan to start a revolution, but it is undeniable that it preceded his anger towards not being able to sell his fruit. "There are many stories on who Mohamed was and who Mohamed wasn't," said Zahra Shwabli, a Hay Al Noor primary school teacher, "It is important for us on this day to remember what Mohamed Bouazizi stood for: the dignity of all Tunisians. And that is something that not even time can take away from us." [62]

Copycat incidents[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Bouazizi's actions triggered the Werther effect, causing a number of self-immolations in protests emulating Bouazizi's in several other countries in the Greater Middle East and Europe. In Algeria in particular, protests against rising food prices and spreading unemployment[63] have resulted in many self-immolations. The first reported case following Bouazizi's death was that of Mohsen Bouterfif, a 37-year-old father of two, who set himself on fire when the mayor of Boukhadra (in Tébessa Province) refused to meet with him and others regarding employment and housing requests on 13 January 2011. According to a report in El-Watan, the mayor challenged him, saying if he had courage he would immolate himself by fire as Bouazizi had done.[64] He died on 24 January. In nearby El Oued Province, Maamir Lotfi, a 36-year-old unemployed father of six, also denied a meeting with the governor, burned himself in front of the town hall of El Oued on 17 January, dying on 12 February.[65] Abdelhafid Boudechicha, a 29-year-old day laborer who lived with his parents and five siblings, burned himself in Medjana on 28 January over employment and housing issues. He died the following day.[66]

In the six months immediately after Mohamed Bouazizi's death on 4 January 2011, at least 107 Tunisians tried to kill themselves by setting themselves on fire.[67] The men who self-immolated were mostly young unmarried men from poor, rural areas, and had only basic education.[67] Amenallah Messaadi, who collated the figures and is head of the Burns Centre, said that people shouldn't glorify the act of self-immolation and "should stop adding fuel to the fire".[67]

In Egypt, Abdou Abdel-Moneim Jaafar, a 49-year-old restaurant owner, set himself alight in front of the Egyptian Parliament.[68] His act of protest helped instigate weeks of protest and, later, the resignation of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak on 11 February 2011. In Saudi Arabia, an unidentified 65-year-old man died on 21 January 2011, after setting himself on fire in the town of Samtah, Jizan. This was apparently the kingdom's first known case of self-immolation.[69][70]

Although these cases, with the exception of Egypt, did not provoke the same kind of popular reaction that Bouazizi's case did in Tunisia, the Algerian, Yemeni, and Jordanian governments have experienced significant protests and made major concessions in response to them.[20] As such, these men and Bouazizi were hailed by some as "heroic martyrs of a new Middle Eastern revolution."[50]

The wave of copycat incidents reached Europe on 11 February 2011, in a case very similar to Bouazizi's. Noureddine Adnane, a 27-year-old Moroccan street vendor, set himself on fire in Palermo, Sicily, in protest of the confiscation of his wares and the harassment that was allegedly inflicted on him by municipal officials.[71] He died five days later.[72] In Amsterdam, Kambiz Roustay, a 36-year-old asylum seeker from Iran, set himself on fire on Dam Square in protest of being rejected asylum. Roustay had fled the country for publishing works undermining the regime, and feared being tortured by the Iranian regime upon his return.[73]

See also[hariri | hariri chanzo]

References[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named guardian1
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