Mapinduzi ya utamaduni

Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru
Rukia: urambazaji, tafuta
Nyuso za sanamu za zamani za Buddha ziliharibiwa wakati wa mapinduzi hayo. Propaganda ilikuwa inasema: "Bomoa ulimwengu wa kale; tengeneza ule mpya" ikimuonesha Mwanamgambo Mwekundu anayevunja kwa nyundo yake msalaba, Buddha na maandishi ya zamani ya Kichina.

Mapinduzi ya utamaduni ni mageuzi ya haraka katika siasa na jamii nchini China yaliyotokea katika miaka 1966 - 1976 chini ya uongozi wa Mao Zedong, mwenyekiti wa Chama cha Kikomunisti cha China.

Lengo lilikuwa kusafisha ukomunisti kutoka mabaki yoyote ya utamaduni asili wa nchi hiyo pamoja na ubepari, lakini pia kuimarisha uongozi wa Mao katika chama.

Matokeo yalikuwa aina ya ibada kwa Mao, makumbusho mengi kubomolewa, dhuluma za kila namna dhidi ya mamilioni ya wananchi, watu kuhamishwa kwa lazima, nchi kupooza kisiasa pamoja na kuiathiri kiuchumi.[1]

Mapinduzi hayo yaliathiri Ulaya pia na kuchangia fujo za vijana mwaka 1968 n.k.

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. "Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our Party Since the Founding of the People's Republic of China," adopted by the Sixth Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on June 27, 1981 Resolution on CPC History (1949-81). (Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1981). p. 32.

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

      . http://www.biblicalstudies.org.uk/pdf/rss/31-1_007.pdf.

Marejeo mengine[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Ya jumla[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Michael Schoenhals, ed., China's Cultural Revolution, 1966–1969: Not a Dinner Party (Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 1996. An East Gate Reader). xix, 400p. ISBN 1-56324-736-4.
  • Richard Curt Kraus. The Cultural Revolution: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, Very Short Introductions Series, 2012. xiv, 138p. ISBN 9780199740550.
  • MacFarquhar, Roderick and Schoenhals, Michael. Mao's Last Revolution. Harvard University Press, 2006. ISBN 0-674-02332-3
  • Jiaqi Yan, Gao Gao (1996). Turbulent Decade: A History of the Cultural Revolution, 1st, University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 978-0824816957. 
  • Morning Sun, "Bibliography," Morningsun.org Books and articles of General Readings and Selected Personal Narratives on the Cultural Revolution.

Mada maalumu[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • (2010) in Richard King: Art in Turmoil: The Chinese Cultural Revolution, 1966-76. University of British Columbia Press. ISBN 978-0774815437. 
  • Andreas, Joel (2009). Rise of the Red Engineers: The Cultural Revolution and the Origins of China's New Class. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Chan, Anita. 1985. Children of Mao: Personality Development and Political Activism in the Red Guard Generation. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
  • Leese, Daniel (2011). Mao Cult: Rhetoric and Ritual in the Cultural Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Zheng Yi. Scarlet Memorial: Tales Of Cannibalism In Modern China. Westview Press, 1998. ISBN 0-8133-2616-8
  • Yang, Guobin. 2000. China's Red Guard Generation: The Ritual Process of Identity Transformation, 1966–1999. PhD diss., New York University.
  • Fox Butterfield, China: Alive in the Bitter Sea, (1982, revised 2000), ISBN 0-553-34219-3, an oral history of some Chinese people's experience during the Cultural Revolution.
  • Chang, Jung and Halliday, Jon. Mao: The Unknown Story. Jonathan Cape, London, 2005. ISBN 0-224-07126-2
  • Xing Lu (2004). Rhetoric of the Chinese Cultural Revolution: The Impact on Chinese Thought, Culture, and Communication. University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 978-1570035432. 
  • Ross Terrill,The White-Boned Demon: A Biography of Madame Mao Zedong Stanford University Press, 1984 ISBN 0-8047-2922-0; rpr. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992 ISBN 0-671-74484-4.
  • Wu, Yiching (2014). The Cultural Revolution at the Margins: Chinese Socialism in Crisis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Ufafanuzi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Katika fasihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Sijie Dai, translated by Ina Rilke, Balzac and the Little Chinese Seamstress (New York: Knopf: Distributed by Random House, 2001). 197p. ISBN 0-375-41309-X
  • Xingjian Gao, translated by Mabel Lee, One Man's Bible: A Novel (New York: HarperCollins, 2002). 450p.
  • Hua Gu, A Small Town Called Hibiscus (Beijing, China: Chinese Literature: distributed by China Publications Centre, 1st, 1983. Panda Books). Translated by Gladys Yang. 260p. Reprinted: San Francisco: China Books.
  • Hua Yu, To Live: A Novel (New York: Anchor Books, 2003). Translated by Michael Berry. 250p.
  • Ying Chang Compestine, Revolution Is Not a Dinner Party : A Novel. (New York: Holt, 2007). ISBN 0805082077. Young adult novel.

Kumbukumbu za wahusika[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Liu Ping, My Chinese Dream - From Red Guard to CEO (San Francisco, June 2012). 556 pages ISBN 9780835100403
  • Nien Cheng, Life and Death in Shanghai (Grove, May 1987). 547 pages ISBN 0-394-55548-1
  • Jung Chang, Wild Swans: Three Daughters of China (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991). 524 p. Kigezo:LCCN/prepare
  • Heng Liang Judith Shapiro, Son of the Revolution (New York: Knopf : Distributed by Random House, 1983).
  • Yuan Gao, with Judith Polumbaum, Born Red: A Chronicle of the Cultural Revolution (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1987).
  • Jiang Yang Chu translated and annotated by Djang Chu, Six Chapters of Life in a Cadre School: Memoirs from China's Cultural Revolution [Translation of Ganxiao Liu Ji] (Boulder: Westview Press, 1986).
  • Bo Ma, Blood Red Sunset: A Memoir of the Chinese Cultural Revolution (New York: Viking, 1995). Translated by Howard Goldblatt.
  • Guanlong Cao, The Attic: Memoir of a Chinese Landlord's Son (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996).
  • Ji-li Jiang, Red Scarf Girl: A Memoir of the Cultural Revolution (New York: HarperCollins, 1997).
  • Anchee Min, Red Azalea (New York: Pantheon Books, 1994). ISBN 1-4000-9698-7.
  • Rae Yang, Spider Eaters : A Memoir (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).
  • Weili Ye, Xiaodong Ma, Growing up in the People's Republic: Conversations between Two Daughters of China's Revolution (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005).
  • Lijia Zhang, "Socialism Is Great": A Worker's Memoir of the New China (New York: Atlas & Co, Distributed by Norton, 2007).
  • Emily Wu, Feather in the Storm (Pantheon, 2006). ISBN 978-0-375-42428-1.
  • Xinran Xue, The Good Women of China: Hidden Voices (Chatto & Windus, 2002). Translated by Esther Tyldesley. ISBN 0-7011-7345-9
  • Ting-Xing Ye, Leaf In A Bitter Wind (England, Bantam Books, 2000)
  • Zhang Xianliang, Grass Soup, ISBN 0-7493-9774-8

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Hourglass.svg Makala hii kuhusu mambo ya kihistoria bado ni mbegu.
Je, unajua kitu kuhusu Mapinduzi ya utamaduni kama enzi zake au matokeo yake?
Labda unaona habari katika Wikipedia ya Kiingereza au lugha nyingine zinazofaa kutafsiriwa?
Basi unaweza kuisaidia Wikipedia kwa kuihariri na kuongeza habari.