Propaganda

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Propaganda ya Kifaransa wakati wa Vita Kuu ya Kwanza: Mwanajeshi Mjerumani anajaribu kumeza dunia yote

Propaganda (lat. propagare kueneza) ni jitihada ya kuathiri mawazo na maoni katika jamii kwenda mwelekeo unaotakiwa na wenye propaganda. Inafanana na njia zinazotumiwa kwa matangazo ya kiuchumi yanayolenga kuuza bidhaa fulani au kusambaza mafundisho ya kidini lakini eneo la propaganda ni kisiasa. Kwa hiyo mara nyingi sehemu muhimu ya propaganda ni kuchora picha baya ya wapinzani au maadui.

Jambo muhimu katika propaganda ni kuonyesha habari jinsi inavyofaa zaidi kwa kuathiri watu si kuonyesha hali jinsi ilivyo au pande mbalimbali ya hali halisi.

Harakati ya kisiasa kama Ukomunisti au Ufashisti zilitumia propaganda kwa kusudi na wakati mwingine kwa mafanikio. Kutokana na historia hii neno propaganda haina maana mazuri. Siku hizi vyama vya kisiasa na serikali wanapenelea kuita idara husika "mawasiliano na umma" (public relations) au "habari" (information).

Kujisomea[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Vitabu[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Altheide, David L. & Johnson, John M. Bureaucratic Propaganda. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc. (1980)
  • Brown, J.A.C. Techniques of Persuasion: From Propaganda to Brainwashing Harmondsworth: Pelican (1963)
  • Chomsky, Noam and Herman, Edward. Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media. New York: Pantheon Books. (1988)
  • Cole, Robert. Propaganda in Twentieth Century War and Politics (1996)
  • Cole, Robert, ed. Encyclopedia of Propaganda (3 vol 1998)
  • Combs, James E. & Nimmo, Dan. The New Propaganda: The Dictatorship of Palaver in Contemporary Politics. White Plains, N.Y. Longman. (1993)
  • Cull, Nicholas John, Culbert, and Welch, eds. Propaganda and Mass Persuasion: A Historical Encyclopedia, 1500 to the Present (2003)
  • Cunningham, Stanley, B. The Idea of Propaganda: A Reconstruction. Westport, Conn.: Praeger. (2002)
  • Cunninghamm Stanley B. "Reflections on the Interface Between Propaganda and Religion." In P.Rennick, S. Cunningham, R.H. Johnson (eds), The Future of Religion. Cambridge Scholars Pub.: Newcastle upon Tyne 2010, pp. 83–96.
  • Dimitri Kitsikis, Propagande et pressions en politique internationale, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 1963, 537 pages.
  • Ellul, Jacques. Propaganda: The Formation of Men's Attitudes. Trans. Konrad Kellen & Jean Lerner. New York: Knopf, 1965. New York: Random House/ Vintage 1973
  • Jowett, Garth S. and Victoria O"Donnell, 'Propaganda and Persuasion, 6th edition. ' California: Sage Publications, 2014. A detailed overview of the history, function, and analyses of propaganda.
  • Marlin, Randal. Propaganda & The Ethics of Persuasion. Orchard Park, New York: Broadview Press. (2002)
  • McCombs M. E. & Shaw, D. L. (1972). The agenda-setting function of mass media. Public Opinion Quarterly, 36, 176–187.
  • Linebarger, Paul M. Psychological Warfare. International Propaganda and Communications. ISBN 0-405-04755-X (1948)
  • Moran, T. "Propaganda as Pseudocommunication." Et Cetera 2(1979), pp. 181–197.
  • Pratkanis, Anthony & Aronson, Elliot. Age of Propaganda: The Everyday Use and Abuse of Persuasion. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company. (1992)
  • Rutherford, Paul. Endless Propaganda: The Advertising of Public Goods. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. (2000)
  • Rutherford, Paul. Weapons of Mass Persuasion: Marketing the War Against Iraq. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. (2004)
  • Shaw, Jeffrey M. Illusions of Freedom: Thomas Merton and Jacques Ellul on Technology and the Human Condition. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock. ISBN 978-1625640581 (2014)
  • Sproule, J. Michael. Channels of Propaganda. Bloomington, IN: EDINFO Press. (1994)
  • Stauber, John, and Rampton, Sheldon Toxic Sludge Is Good for You! Lies, Damn Lies and the Public Relations Industry Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 1995.

Makala[hariri | hariri chanzo]