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Sosholojia

Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru
(Elekezwa kutoka Elimu jamii)
Mwanasosholojia Auguste Comte (1798-1857).

Sosholojia ni fani ya sayansi inayochunguza mwenendo wa kijamii, yaani binadamu katika maisha ya jamii: unavyoanza, unayoendelea, unavyojipanga na unavyosababisha miundo.[1]

Kwa maneno mengine, sosholojia inamsoma mtu katika mahusiano yake: mtu na mtu, mtu na watu (kundi) na hivyo huweza kugundua tabia zake mbalimbali.

Somo hilo linahusiana na masomo mengine, kama vile anthropolojia, historia, saikolojia na uchumi.

Ni mojawapo kati ya sayansi za jamii nayo inatumia mbinu tofauti za kutambua hali halisi, halafu inazichunguza kimpango.

Jina la fani hii linatokana na Kilatini ("socius" yaani "mwenzi") na Kigiriki ("λογία, logia" yaani "elimu") pamoja.

Aliyeunganisha kwa mara ya kwanza maneno hayo (mwaka 1780) ni mwandishi Mfaransa Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès (17481836), lakini alichoandika kilichelewa kuchapwa.[2] Mwaka 1838 alifanya vilevile Mfaransa mwingine, mwanafalsafa wa sayansi Auguste Comte (17981857).[3] Comte used this term to describe a new way of looking at society.[4]

Faida ya fani hii

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Kujifunza sosholojia ni kujifunza kuangalia dunia kwa mapana zaidi, yaani kutoka nje ya mipaka ya tafsiri zetu tulizojiwekea kijuujuu. Ni kukubali changamoto ya kuchunguza upya yale yote tunayoyajua kwa maana za kawaida: matokeo ya uchunguzi huo pengine hupingana na kile tulichokidhani mwanzoni na hivyo kutuwezesha kuuona ukweli katika hali mpya.

Sosholojia hutusaidia kuelewa hali halisi ya jamii ili kuchangia urekebishaji au utengenezaji wa sera mpya. Hutusaidia pia kukuza ujuzi wetu wa jamii mbalimbali na wa mahusiano yetu kijamii, yakiwa mazuri au mabaya vilevile. Hutusaidia tena kuelewa jumuia zetu kubwa au ndogo kama watu wanaoishi pamoja wakifuata mila na desturi za aina moja na kuwa na lengo moja. Hutusaidia kuelewa aina mbalimbali za utamaduni ili kurahisisha ushirikiano.

Historia ya sosholojia

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Pamoja na kwamba mizizi ya sosholojia inapatikana katika maandishi ya wanafalsafa wa Ugiriki Plato na Aristotle, somo hilo lilipata kujitegemea katika karne ya 19 likakua haraka katika karne ya 20.

Mababa wake ni hasa Auguste Comte (1798-1857) na Herbert Spencer (1820-1903).

Wengineo ni Karl Marx (1818-1883), Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) na Max Weber (1864-1920).

  1. sociology. (n.d.). The American Heritage Science Dictionary. Retrieved July 13, 2013, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/sociology
  2. Des Manuscrits de Sieyès. 1773–1799, Volumes I and II, published by Christine Fauré, Jacques Guilhaumou, Jacques Vallier and Françoise Weil, Paris, Champion, 1999 and 2007. See also Christine Fauré and Jacques Guilhaumou, Sieyès et le non-dit de la sociologie: du mot à la chose, in Revue d'histoire des sciences humaines, Numéro 15, novembre 2006: Naissances de la science sociale. See also the article 'sociologie' in the French-language Wikipedia.
  3. A Dictionary of Sociology, Article: Comte, Auguste
  4. Macionis, Gerber, John, Linda (2010). Sociology 7th Canadian Ed. Toronto, Ontario: Pearson Canada. pp. 10.
  • Aby, Stephen H. Sociology: A Guide to Reference and Information Sources, 3rd edn. Littleton, Colorado, Libraries Unlimited Inc., 2005, ISBN 1-56308-947-5 OCLC 57475961
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  • Collins, Randall. 1994. Four Sociological Traditions. Oxford, Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-508208-7 OCLC 28411490
  • Coser, Lewis A., Masters of Sociological Thought : Ideas in Historical and Social Context, New York, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1971. ISBN 0-15-555128-0.
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  • Lipset, Seymour Martin and Everett Carll Ladd. "The Politics of American Sociologists," American Journal of Sociology (1972) 78#1 pp. 67–104 in JSTOR
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  • C. Wright Mills, Intellectual Craftsmanship Advices how to Work for young Sociologist Archived 6 Novemba 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
  • Mitchell, Geoffrey Duncan (2007, originally published in 1968). A Hundred Years of Sociology: A Concise History of the Major Figures, Ideas, and Schools of Sociological Thought. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-0-202-36168-0. OCLC 145146341. {{cite book}}: Check date values in: |year= (help)
  • Nisbet, Robert A. 1967. The Sociological Tradition, London, Heinemann Educational Books. ISBN 1-56000-667-6 OCLC 26934810
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  • Wallace, Ruth A. & Alison Wolf. 1995. Contemporary Sociological Theory: Continuing the Classical Tradition, 4th ed., Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-13-036245-X OCLC 31604842
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Viungo vya nje

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Vyama vya taaluma hii
Vyanzo vingine
Makala hii kuhusu mambo ya sayansi bado ni mbegu.
Je, unajua kitu kuhusu Sosholojia kama historia yake au mahusiano yake na mada nyingine?
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