Olduvai Gorge

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Bonde la Olduvai

Olduvai Gorge ni eneo la kihistoria linalopatikana katika mkoa wa Arusha nchini Tanzania. Bonde hili lipo kati ya maeneo ya hifadhi ya Ngorongoro na Serengeti ambapo ndipo viumbe wa kale wa jamii ya binadamu walisadikiwa kuishi (Cradle of Mankind). Katika eneo hili mwanahistoria Mary Leakey ndipo alipogundua fuvu la kichwa la kiumbe wa kale wa jamii hiyo ambaye alisadikiwa kuishi miaka milioni mbili au zaidi iliyopita.

Pamoja na mabaki ya mifupa ya tembo, kongoo wenye pembe kubwa na mbuni, Mwaka 1959 aligundua mabaki ya fuvu la kichwa la Australopithecus boisei au Zinjanthropus ambalo lipo katika makumbusho ya Dar es Salaam. Huyo anadhaniwa kuwa mtangulizi wa binadamu wa sasa.

Karibu na eneo hilo la Olduvai Gorge, eneo la Laitoli ndipo ambapo Mary Leakey alingundua nyayo za mtu wa kale mwaka 1972.

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Cole, Sonia (1975) Leakey’s Luck. Harcourt Brace Jovanvich, New York.
  • Deocampo, Daniel M. (2004) "Authigenic clays in East Africa: Regional trends and paleolimnology at the Plio-Pleistocene boundary, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania." Journal of Paleolimnology, vol. 31, p. 1-9.
  • Deocampo, Daniel M., Blumenschine, R.J., and Ashley, G.M. (2002). "Freshwater wetland diagenesis and traces of early hominids in the lowermost Bed II (~1.8 myr) playa lake-margin at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania." Quaternary Research, vol. 57, p. 271-281.
  • Hay, Richard L. (1976) "Geology of the Olduvai Gorge." University of California Press, 203 pp.
  • Joanne Christine Tactikos (2006) A landscape perspective on the Oldowan from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. ISBN 0-542-15698-9.
  • Leakey, L.S.B. (1974) By the evidence: Memoirs 1932-1951. Harcourt Brace Jovanavich, New York, ISBN 0-15-149454-1.
  • Leakey, M.D. (1971) Olduvai Gorge: Excavations in beds I & II 1960 – 1963. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Leakey, M.D. (1984) Disclosing the past. Doubleday & Co., New York, ISBN 0-385-18961-3.

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]