Lugha za Khoisan

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Uenezi wa lugha za Khoisan barani Afrika (rangi ya njano).

Lugha za Khoisan ni lugha za Afrika ambazo ni maalumu kwa fonimu zake nyingi sana, kuliko lugha nyingine zote.

Zimeenea hasa Kusini mwa Afrika, lakini zinatumika pia katika wilaya ya Chemba nchini Tanzania.[1]

Hii inaonyesha kwamba kabla ya uenezi wa makabila ya Kibantu, lugha hizo zilitawala barani Afrika kusini kwa ikweta.

Baadhi ya lugha hizo zimeshakufa na nyingine ziko hatarini. Karibu zote hazina maandishi.

Ile inayotumiwa na watu wengi zaidi (250,000 hivi) inaitwa Khoekhoe ("Nàmá") na inapatikana nchini Namibia. Inafuatwa na Kisandawe nchini Tanzania (40,000-80,000).

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. Barnard, A. (1988) 'Kinship, language and production: a conjectural history of Khoisan social structure', Africa: Journal of the International African Institute 58 (1), 29–50.

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Barnard, A. 1988. "Kinship, Language and Production: a Conjectural History of Khoisan Social Structure." In Africa: Journal of the International African Institute 58.1, 29-50.
  • Ehret, Christopher. 1986. "Proposals on Khoisan Reconstruction." In African Hunter-Gatherers (International Symposium), edited by Franz Rottland & Rainer Vossen, 105-130. Sprache und Geschichte in Afrika, special issue 7.1. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag.
  • Ehret, Christopher. 2003. "Toward reconstructing Proto-South Khoisan." In Mother Tongue 8.
  • Greenberg, Joseph H. 1955. Studies in African Linguistic Classification. New Haven: Compass Publishing Company. (Reprints, with minor corrections, a series of eight articles published in the Southwestern Journal of Anthropology from 1949 to 1954.)
  • Greenberg, Joseph H. 1963. The Languages of Africa. (Heavily revised version of Greenberg 1955.) Bloomington: Indiana University Press. (From the same publisher: second, revised edition, 1966; third edition, 1970. All three editions simultaneously published at The Hague by Mouton Publishers)
  • Güldemann, Tom and Rainer Vossen. 2000. "Khoisan." In African Languages: An Introduction, edited by Bernd Heine and Derek Nurse, 99-122. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Hastings, Rachel. 2001. "Evidence for the Genetic Unity of Southern Khoesan." In Cornell Working Papers in Linguistics 18, 225-245.
  • Honken, Henry. 1988. "Phonetic Correspondences among Khoisan Affricates." In New Perspectives on the Study of Khoisan, edited by Rainer Vossen, 47-65. Quellen zur Khoisan-Forschung 7. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag, 1988.
  • Honken, Henry. 1998. "Types of sound correspondence patterns in Khoisan languages." In Language, Identity and Conceptualization among the Khoisan, edited by Mathias Schladt, 171-193. Quellen zur Khoisan-Forschung/Research in Khoisan studies 15. Köln: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.
  • Köhler, O. 1971. "Die Khoe-sprachigen Buschmänner der Kalahari." In Forschungen zur allgemeinen und regionalen Geschichte (Festschrift Kurt Kayser), 373–411. Wiesbaden: F. Steiner.
  • Sands, Bonny. 1998. Eastern and Southern African Khoisan: Evaluating Claims of Distant Linguistic Relationships. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.
  • Sands, Bonny. 1998. "Comparison and Classification of Khoisan languages." In Language History and Linguistic Description in Africa, edited by Ian Maddieson and Thomas J. Hinnebusch, 75-85. Trenton: Africa World Press.
  • Schladt, Mathias (editor). 1998. Language, Identity, and Conceptualization among the Khoisan. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.
  • Starostin, George. 2003. "A Lexicostatistical Approach towards Reconstructing Proto-Khoisan." (Originally published in Mother Tongue 8 (2003), 81-126.)
  • Starostin, George. 2008. "From modern Khoisan languages to Proto-Khoisan: The Value of Intermediate Reconstructions." (Originally published in Aspects of Comparative Linguistics 3 (2008), 337-470, Moscow: RSUH Publishers.)
  • Starostin, George. 2013. Languages of Africa: An attempt at a lexicostatistical classification. Volume I: Methodology. Khoesan Languages. Moscow.
  • Traill, Anthony. 1986. "Do the Khoi have a place in the San? New data on Khoisan linguistic relationships." In African Hunter-gatherers (International Symposium), Franz Rottland and Rainer Vossen, 407-430. Sprache und Geschichte in Afrika, special issue 7.1. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag.
  • Treis, Yvonne. 1998. "Names of Khoisan languages and Their Variants." In Language, Identity, and Conceptualization Among the Khoisan, edited by Matthias Schladt. Köln: Rüdiger Köppe, 463–503.
  • Vossen, Rainer. 1997. Die Khoe-Sprachen. Ein Beitrag zur Erforschung der Sprachgeschichte Afrikas. Köln: Rüdiger Köppe.
  • Vossen, Rainer. 2013. The Khoesan Languages. Oxon: Routledge.
  • Westphal, E.O.J. 1971. "The Click Languages of Southern and Eastern Africa." In Current Trends in Linguistics, Volume 7: Linguistics in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by T.A. Sebeok. Berlin: Mouton, 367–420.
  • Winter, J.C. 1981. "Die Khoisan-Familie." In Die Sprachen Afrikas, edited by Bernd Heine, Thilo C. Schadeberg, and Ekkehard Wolff. Hamburg: Helmut Buske, 329–374.

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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