Kinyume na tohara ya wavulana matabibu wanaona hasara nyingi katika desturi hiyo. Ukeketaji unasababisha wasichana wengi kufa na wengine wengi kupatwa na maumivu makali wakati wa hedhi, wa tendo la ndoa na wa kujifungua.
Kwa sababu hizo serikali nyingi za dunia zimeupiga marufuku.
Juhudi zimefanikiwa kwa kiasi fulani katika baadhi ya nchi.
|Kiwango kikubwa sana||Kiwango kikubwa||Kiwango cha wastani||Kiwango cha chini||Kiwango cha chini sana|
|Jamhuri ya Afrika ya Kati
Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]
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- Gallo, Pia Grassivaro; Tita Eleanora; and Viviani, Franco. "At the Roots of Ethnic Female Genital Modification," in George C. Denniston and Pia Grassivaro Gallo (eds.). Bodily Integrity and the Politics of Circumcision, Springer, 2006.
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- J.F.C. "Isaac Baker Brown, F.R.C.S.", Medical Times and Gazette, 8 February 1873.
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- Kirby, Vicki. "Out of Africa: 'Our Bodies Ourselves'?" in Obioma Nnaemeka (ed.), Female Circumcision and the Politics of Knowledge: African Women in Imperialist Discourses, Praeger, 2005.
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- Lane, Sandra D. and Rubinstein, Robert A. "Judging the Other: Responding to Traditional Female Genital Surgeries", Hastings Center Report, 26(3), May–June 1996, pp. 31–40.
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- Lightfoot-Klein, Hanny. "The Sexual Experience and Marital Adjustment of Genitally Circumcised and Infibulated Females in The Sudan", The Journal of Sex Research, 26(3), 1989, pp. 375–392.
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- Shell-Duncan, Bettina and Hernlund, Ylva. "Female 'Circumcision' in Africa: Dimensions of the Practice and Debates" in Bettina Shell-Duncan and Ylva Hernlund (eds.), Female "Circumcision" in Africa, Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2000.
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- Thomas, Lynn M. Kigezo:" 'Ngaitana (I will circumcise myself)': The Gender and Generational Politics of the 1956 Ban on Clitoridectomy in Meru, Kenya", Gender and History, 8(3), November 1996, pp. 338–363.
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- Wangila, Mary Nyangweso. Female Circumcision: The Interplay of Religion, Culture and Gender in Kenya, Orbis Books, 2007.
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- Yasin, Berivan A. et al. "Female genital mutilation among Iraqi Kurdish women: a cross-sectional study from Erbil city", BMC Public Health, 13, September 2013.
- Yoder, Stanley P. and Khan, Shane. "Numbers of women circumcised in Africa", USAID, March 2008.
- Zabus, Chantal. "Between Rites and Rights: Excision on Trial in African Women's Texts and Human Contexts," in Peter H. Marsden and Geoffrey V. Davis (eds.), Towards a Transcultural Future: Literature and Human Rights in a ' Post'-Colonial World, Rodopi, 2004.
- Zabus, Chantal. "The Excised Body in African Texts and Contexts," in Merete Falck Borch (ed.), Bodies and Voices: The Force-field of Representation and Discourse in Colonial and Postcolonial Studies, Rodopi, 2008.
Marejeo mengine[hariri | hariri chanzo]
- "Factsheet on FGM", World Health Organization, February 2013.
- British National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children 24-hour national helpline for children at risk of FGM: 0800 028 3550
- FORWARD, London, charity specializing in FGM research (FORWARD's list of hospitals and clinics in the UK offering specialist FGM services).
- Desert Flower Foundation ("First Desert Flower Center opens in Berlin", 16 September 2013, first dedicated FGM clinic in Europe).
- "Circumcision, female", The Kinsey Institute (bibliography 1960s–1980s).
- Westley, David M. "Female circumcision and infibulation in Africa", Electronic Journal of Africana Bibliography, 4, 1999 (bibliography up to 1997).
- The Guardian. FGM archive.
- The Guardian. "The facts about female genital mutilation – interactive", interactive display showing facts and figures from UNICEF, 22 July 2013.
- Books, articles
- Bryk, Felix. Circumcision in Man and Woman: Its History, Psychology, and Ethnology, The Minerva Group, Inc., 2001, first published 1934.
- CNN. Report on FGM in Egypt, February 2009.
- Cullen-Dupont, Kathryn. "Female genital mutilation," Encyclopedia of Women's History in America, Da Capo Press, 1998, p. 85.
- Dorkenoo, Efua. "Combating Female Genital Mutilation: An Agenda for the Next Decade," in Mona Eliasson (ed.). Teaching about Violence Against Women, Feminist Press at CUNY, 1999.
- Dorkenoo, Efua. "Cutting the Rose: Female Genital Mutilation, the Practice and its Prevention, Minority Rights Group, 1994.
- Gollaher, David. "Female circumcision," Circumcision: A History of the World's Most Controversial Surgery, Basic Books, 2000, p. 187ff.
- Kouba, Leonard J. and Muasher, Judith. "Female Circumcision in Africa: An Overview", African Studies Review, 28(1), March 1985, pp. 95–110.
- Sanderson, Lillian Passmore. Against the Mutilation of Women: The Struggle to End Unnecessary Suffering, Ithaca Press, 1981.
- Sembène, Ousmane. Moolaadé, 2004, a film about abandoning FGM.
- Sinclair, Stephanie. "Inside a Female-Circumcision Ceremony", The New York Times magazine, April 2006, slideshow of images from Indonesia (article).
- UNICEF. "Towards the abandonment of female genital mutilation in five African countries", October 2010.
- Yoder, P. Stanley; Noureddine, Abderrahim; Arlinda, Zhuzhuni. "Female Genital Cutting in the Demographic and Health Surveys: A Critical and Comparative Analysis", DHS Comparative Reports No. 7, 2004.
- Personal stories
- Ali, Ayaan Hirsi. Infidel: My Life, Simon & Schuster, 2007: Ali experiences FGM at the hands of her grandmother.
- Dirie, Waris. Desert Flower, Harper Perennial, 1999: autobiographical novel.
- Dirie, Waris. Desert Dawn, Little, Brown, 2003: Dirie's work as UN Special Ambassador against FGM.
- Dirie, Waris. Desert Children, Virago, 2007: FGM in Europe
- Kasinga, Fauziya, and Bashir, Layli Miller. Do They Hear You When You Cry, Delacorte Press, 1998.
- El Saadawi, Nawal. Woman at Point Zero, Zed Books, 1975.