Ukeketaji

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Kiwango cha ukeketaji duniani: Afrika inaongoza pamoja na Yemen na Kurdistan ya Iraq.

Ukeketaji ni neno linalotokana na mzizi keket, ambao unabeba maana ya kuharibu.

Mara nyingi tendo la ukeketaji unaitwa pia "tohara" kwa kulifananisha na upasuaji mdogo wa wanaume, lakini mambo ni tofauti kabisa.

Hapa sehemu za nje za viungo vya uzazi zinakatwa kusudi wasifurahie sana tendo la ndoa, hivyo wawe waaminifu zaidi kwa waume wao.

Ukeketaji umeenea hasa kati ya mataifa na makabila wenye asili ya bonde la Naili na majirani wao.

Kinyume na tohara ya wavulana matabibu wanaona hasara nyingi katika desturi hiyo. Ukeketaji unasababisha wasichana wengi kufa na wengine wengi kupatwa na maumivu makali wakati wa hedhi, wa tendo la ndoa na wa kujifungua.

Kwa sababu hizo serikali nyingi za dunia zimeupiga marufuku.

Pia madhehebu kadhaa yanatoa mafundisho kuwa ni kinyume cha masharti ya dini yao.

Juhudi zimefanikiwa kwa kiasi fulani katika baadhi ya nchi.

Kiwango kikubwa sana Kiwango kikubwa Kiwango cha wastani Kiwango cha chini Kiwango cha chini sana
Somalia
98%
Gambia
76%
Guinea-Bissau
50%
Jamhuri ya Afrika ya Kati
24%
Iraq
8%
Guinea
96%
Burkina Faso
76%
Chad
44%
Yemen
23%
Ghana
4%
Jibuti
93%
Ethiopia
74%
Côte d'Ivoire
38%
Tanzania
15%
Togo
4%
Egypt
91%
Mauritania
69%
Kenya
27%
Benin
13%
Niger
2%
Eritrea
89%
Liberia
66%
Nigeria
27%
Cameroon
1%
Mali
89%
Senegal
26%
Uganda
1%
Sierra Leone
88%
Sudan
88%

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Abdalla, Raqiya Haji Dualeh. Sisters in Affliction: Circumcision and Infibulation of Women in Africa, Zed Books, 1982.
Abdalla, Raqiya Dualeh. Kigezo:" 'My Grandmother Called it the Three Feminine Sorrows: The Struggle of Women Against Female Circumcision in Somalia," in Rogaia Mustafa Abusharaf (ed.), Female Circumcision: Multicultural Perspectives, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007.
Abd el Salam, S. "A Comprehensive Approach for Communication about Female Genital Mutilation in Egypt," in George C. Denniston, Frederick Mansfield Hodges and Marilyn Fayre Milos, Male and Female Circumcision: Medical, Legal, and Ethical Considerations in Pediatric Practice, Springer, 1999.
Abdulcadira, Jasmine; Margairaz, C.; Boulvain, M; Irion, O. "Care of women with female genital mutilation/cutting", Swiss Medical Weekly, 6(14), January 2011.
Abusharaf, Rogaia Mustafa. "Introduction: The Custom in Question," in Rogaia Mustafa Abusharaf (ed.), Female Circumcision: Multicultural Perspectives, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007.
Abusharaf, Rogaia Mustafa. "Revisiting Feminist Discourses on Inbulation: The Hosken Report," in Bettina Shell-Duncan and Ylva Hernlund (eds.), Female "Circumcision" in Africa: Culture, Controversy, and Change, Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2000.
Allen, Peter Lewis. The Wages of Sin: Sex and Disease, Past and Present, University of Chicago Press, 2000.
Ahmadu, Fuambai. Kigezo:" 'Ain't I a Woman too?': Challenging Myths of Sexual Dysfunction in Circumcised Women," in Ylva Hernlund and Bettina Shell-Duncan (eds.), Transcultural Bodies: Female Genital Cutting in Global Context, Rutgers University Press, 2007.
Bagnol, Birgitte and Mariano, Esmeralda. "Politics of naming sexual practices," in Sylvia Tamale (ed.), African Sexualities: A Reader, Pambazuka Press, 2011.
Banks, E. et al. "Female genital mutilation and obstetric outcome: WHO collaborative prospective study in six African countries", The Lancet, 367(9525), 3 June 2006, pp. 1835–1841.
Barker Benfield, G.J. The Horrors of the Half-Known Life: Male Attitudes Toward Women and Sexuality in Nineteenth-Century America, Routledge, 1999.
Beck, Ann. "Some Observations on Jomo Kenyatta in Britain, 1929–1930", Cahiers d'études africaines, 6(22), 1996, pp. 308–329.
Bennett, Jane. "Subversion and resistance: activist initiatives," in Sylvia Tamale (ed.), African Sexualities: A Reader, Fahamu/Pambazuka, 2011.
Berga, Rigmor C. and Denisona Eva. "A Tradition in Transition: Factors Perpetuating and Hindering the Continuance of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) Summarized in a Systematic Review", Health Care for Women International, 34(10), 2013.
Bergrren, Vanja et al. "Being Victims or Beneficiaries? Perspectives on Female Genital Cutting and Reinfibulation in Sudan", African Journal of Reproductive Health, 10(2), August 2006.
Bergrren, Vanja et al. "An explorative study of Sudanese midwives' motives, perceptions and experiences of re-infibulation after birth", Midwifery, 20(4), December 2004, pp. 299–311.
Black, Donald Campbell. On the Functional Diseases of the Renal, Urinary and Reproductive Organs, Lindsay & Blakiston, 1872.
Black, J.A. and Debelle, G.D. "Female genital mutilation in Britain", British Medical Journal, 310, 17 June 1995.
Black, John. "Female genital mutilation: a contemporary issue, and a Victorian obsession", Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 90, July 1997, pp. 402–405.
Boddy, Janice. Wombs and Alien Spirits: Women, Men, and the Zar Cult in Northern Sudan, University of Wisconsin Press, 1989.
Boddy, Janice. Civilizing Women: British Crusades in Colonial Sudan, Princeton University Press, 2007.
Boyle, Elizabeth Heger. Female Genital Cutting: Cultural Conflict in the Global Community, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.
Brown, Isaac Baker. On the Curability of Certain Forms of Insanity, Epilepsy, Catalepsy, and Hysteria in Females, Robert Hardwicke, 1866.
Bryk, Felix. Circumcision in Man and Woman: Its History, Psychology, and Ethnology, The Minerva Group, Inc., 2001.
Caldwell, John C.; Orubuloye, I.O.; and Caldwell, Pat. "Female Genital Mutilation: Conditions of Decline", Population Research and Policy Review, 19(3), June 2000, pp. 233–254.
Cappa, Claudi; Wardlaw, Tessa; Shell-Duncan, Bettina. "Changing a harmful social convention: female genital cutting/mutilation", Innocenti Digest, UNICEF 2005.
Chase, Cheryl. Kigezo:" 'Cultural Practice' or 'Reconstructive Surgery'? US Genital Cutting, the Intersex Movement, and Medical Double Standards," in Stanlie M. James and Claire C. Robertson (eds.), Genital Cutting and Transnational Sisterhood, University of Illinois Press, 2002.
Cohen, Shaye J. D. Why Aren't Jewish Women Circumcised? Gender and Covenant In Judaism, University of California Press, 2005.
Conroy, Ronán M. "Female genital mutilation: whose problem, whose solution?", British Medical Journal, 333(7559), 15 July 2006.
Dave, Amish J.; Sethi, Aisha; and Morrone, Aldo. "Female Genital Mutilation: What Every American Dermatologist Needs to Know", Dermatologic Clinics, 29(1), January 2011, pp. 103–109 (review). doi:10.1016/j.det.2010.09.002
Dettwyler, Katherine A. Dancing Skeletons: Life and Death in West Africa, Waveland Press, 1994.
Dorkenoo, Efua; Morison, Linda; and Macfarlane, Alison. "A Statistical Study to Estimate the Prevalence of Female Genital Mutilation in England and Wales", FORWARD, October 2007.
Ehrenreich, Nancy and Barr, Mark. "Intersex Surgery, Female Genital Cutting, and the Selective Condemnation of 'Cultural PracticesKigezo:' ", Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review, 40(1), 2005, pp. 71–140.
El Bashir, Hamid. The Sudanese National Committee on the Eradication of Harmful Traditional Practices and the Campaign against Female Genital Mutilation in Rogaia Mustafa Abusharaf (ed.), Female Circumcision: Multicultural Perspectives, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007.
Elchalal, Uriel et al."Ritualistic Female Genital Mutilation: Current Status and Future Outlook", Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 52(10), October 1997, pp. 643–651.
El Dareer, Asma. Woman, Why Do You Weep?: Circumcision and its Consequences, Zed Books, 1982.
El Dareer, Asma. "Attitudes of Sudanese People to the Practice of Female Circumcision", International Journal of Epidemiology, 1983, 12(2), pp. 138–144.
  • El Guindi, Fadwa. "Had This Been Your Face, Would You Leave It as Is?" in Rogaia Mustafa Abusharaf (ed.), Female Circumcision: Multicultural Perspectives, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007.
El Hadi, Amal Abd. "Female Genital Mutilation in Egypt" in Meredeth Turshen (ed.), African Women's Health, Africa World Press, 2000.
Elmusharaf, Susan; Elhadi, Nagla; and Almroth, Lars. "Reliability of self reported form of female genital mutilation and WHO classification: cross sectional study", British Medical Journal, 332(7559), 27 June 2006.
Essén, Birgitta and Johnsdotter, Sara. "Female Genital Mutilation in the West: Traditional Circumcision versus Genital Cosmetic Surgery", Acta Obstetricia Gynecologica Scandinavica, 83(7), July 2004, pp. 611–613.
Farage, Samar A. "Female Genital Alteration: A Sociological Perspective," in Miranda A. Farage and Howard I. Maibach (eds.), The Vulva: Anatomy, Physiology, and Pathology, CRC Press, 2006.
Fee, Elizabeth. "Review of The Hosken Report: Genital and Sexual Mutilation of Females by Fran P. Hosken", Signs, 5(4), Summer 1980, pp. 807–809.
Gallard, Colette. "Female genital mutilation in France", British Medical Journal, 310, 17 June 1995.
Gallo, Pia Grassivaro; Tita Eleanora; and Viviani, Franco. "At the Roots of Ethnic Female Genital Modification," in George C. Denniston and Pia Grassivaro Gallo (eds.). Bodily Integrity and the Politics of Circumcision, Springer, 2006.
Gruenbaum, Ellen. The Female Circumcision Controversy, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001.
Hicks, Esther K. Infibulation: Female Mutilation in Islamic Northeastern Africa, Transaction Publishers, 1996.
Holding, E. Mary. "Women's Institutions and the African Church", International Review of Mission, 31(3), July 1942, pp. 290–300.
Hosken, Fran. The Hosken Report: Genital and Sexual Mutilation of Females, Women's International Network, 1994, first published 1979.
Ismail, Edna Adan. "Female genital mutilation survey in Somaliland", Edna Adan Maternity and Teaching Hospital, 2009.
Izett, Susan and Toubia, Nahid. "Female Genital Mutilation: An Overview", World Health Organization, 1998.
James, Stanlie M. "Female Genital Mutilation," in Bonnie G. Smith (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopaedia of Women in World History, Oxford University Press, 2008.
James, Stanlie M. "Listening to Other(ed) Voices: Reflections around Female Genital Cutting," in Stanlie M. James and Claire C. Robertson (eds.), Genital Cutting and Transnational Sisterhood, University of Illinois Press, 2002.
J.F.C. "Isaac Baker Brown, F.R.C.S.", Medical Times and Gazette, 8 February 1873.
Johnsdotter, Sara and Essén, Birgitta. "Genitals and ethnicity: the politics of genital modifications", Reproductive Health Matters, 18(35), 2010, pp. 29–37.
Kaplan, Adriana et al. "Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: The Secret World of Women as Seen by Men", Obstetrics and Gynecology International, 2013: 643780.
Kelly, Elizabeth, and Hillard, Paula J. Adams. "Female genital mutilation", Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology, 17(5), October 2005, pp. 490–494 (review).
Kirby, Vicki. "Out of Africa: 'Our Bodies Ourselves'?" in Obioma Nnaemeka (ed.), Female Circumcision and the Politics of Knowledge: African Women in Imperialist Discourses, Praeger, 2005.
Knight, Mary. "Curing Cut or Ritual Mutilation?: Some Remarks on the Practice of Female and Male Circumcision in Graeco-Roman Egypt", Isis, 92(2), June 2001, pp. 317–338.
Korieh, Chima. Kigezo:" 'Other' Bodies: Western Feminism, Race and Representation in Female Circumcision Discourse," in Obioma Nnaemeka (ed.), Female Circumcision and the Politics of Knowledge: African Women in Imperialist Discourses, Praeger, 2005.
Lane, Sandra D. and Rubinstein, Robert A. "Judging the Other: Responding to Traditional Female Genital Surgeries", Hastings Center Report, 26(3), May–June 1996, pp. 31–40.
Liao, Lih Mei and Creighton, Sarah M. "Requests for cosmetic genitoplasty: how should healthcare providers respond?", British Medical Journal, 334(7603), 26 May 2007, pp. 1090–1092.
Lightfoot-Klein, Hanny. "The Sexual Experience and Marital Adjustment of Genitally Circumcised and Infibulated Females in The Sudan", The Journal of Sex Research, 26(3), 1989, pp. 375–392.
Lightfoot-Klein, Hanny. Prisoners of Ritual: An Odyssey Into Female Genital Circumcision in Africa, Routledge, 1989.
Mackie, Gerry. "Ending Footbinding and Infibulation: A Convention Account", American Sociological Review, 61(6), December 1996, (pp. 999–1017), pp. 99–1000 (also here).
Mackie, Gerry. "Female Genital Cutting: The Beginning of the End," in Bettina Shell-Duncan and Ylva Hernlund (eds.), Female "Circumcision" in Africa: Culture, Controversy, and Change, Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2000, pp. 253–282 (also here).
Mackie, Gerry and LeJeune, John. "Social Dynamics of Abandonment of Harmful Practices: A New Look at the Theory", Innocenti Working Paper No. 2008-XXX, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, 2008.
Mackie, Gerry and LeJeune, John. "Social Dynamics of Abandonment of Harmful Practices: A New Look at the Theory", Innocenti Working Paper No. 2009-06, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, May 2009.
Martinelli, M. and Ollé-Goig, J.E. "Female genital mutilation in Djibouti, African Health Sciences, 12(4), December 2012.
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Momoh, Comfort. "Female genital mutilation," in Comfort Momoh (ed.), Female Genital Mutilation, Radcliffe Publishing, 2005.
Momoh, Comfort. "FGM and issues of gender and human rights of women," in Comfort Momoh (ed.), Female Genital Mutilation, Radcliffe Publishing, 2005.
Morison, Linda et al. "The long-term reproductive health consequences of female genital cutting in rural Gambia: a community-based survey", Tropical Medicine & International Health, 6(8), August 2001, pp. 643–653.
Mufaka, Kenneth. "Scottish Missionaries and the Circumcision Controversy in Kenya, 1900–1960", International Review of Scottish Studies, 28, 2003.
Natsoulas, Theodore. "The Politicization of the Ban of Female Circumcision and the Rise of the Independent School Movement in Kenya: The KCA, the Missions and Government, 1929–1932", Journal of African Studies, 33(2), April 1998, pp. 137–158.
Neusner, Jacob. Approaches to Ancient Judaism, Volume 4, Scholars Press, 1993.
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Nour, Nawal M. "Female Genital Cutting: A Persisting Practice", Reviews in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1(3), Summer 2008, pp. 135–139.
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Obermeyer, Carla. "Female Genital Surgeries: The Known, the Unknown and the Unknowable", Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 31(1), 1999, pp. 79–106.
Obermeyer, Carla. "The Health Consequences of Female Circumcision: Science, Advocacy, and Standards of Evidence", Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 17(3), September 2003.
Obermeyer, Carla. "The Consequences of Female Circumcision for Health and Sexuality: An Update on the Evidence", Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 7(5), September–October 2005.
Oldfield Hayes, Rose. "Female Genital Mutilation, Fertility Control, Women's Roles, and the Patrilineage in Modern Sudan: A Functional Analysis", American Ethnologist 2(4), November 1975, pp. 617–633.
Rahman, Anika and Toubia, Nahid. Female Genital Mutilation: A Guide to Laws and Policies Worldwide, Zed Books, 2000.
Rodriguez, Sarah W. "Rethinking the history of female circumcision and clitoridectomy: American medicine and female sexuality in the late nineteenth century", Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences. 63(3), July 2008, pp. 323–347.
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Saadawi, Nawal. The Hidden Face of Eve: Women in the Arab World, Zed Books, 2007.
Seligman, Charles G. "Aspects of the Hamitic problems in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan",The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 1913, 40(3), pp. 593–705.
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Sharif, Khadijah F. "Female Genital Mutilation," in Nadine Taub, Beth Anne Wolfson, and Carla M. Palumbo (eds.). The Law of Sex Discrimination, Cengage Learning, 2010.
Sheehan, Elizabeth. "Victorian Clitoridectomy: Isaac Baker Brown and His Harmless Operative Procedure", Medical Anthropology Newsletter, 12(4), August 1981.
Shell-Duncan, Bettina and Hernlund, Ylva. "Female 'Circumcision' in Africa: Dimensions of the Practice and Debates" in Bettina Shell-Duncan and Ylva Hernlund (eds.), Female "Circumcision" in Africa, Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2000.
Shorter, Edward. From Paralysis to Fatigue: A History of Psychosomatic Illness in the Modern Era, Simon and Schuster, 2008.
Shweder, Richard. Kigezo:" 'What About Female Genital Mutilation?" And Why Understanding Culture Matters in the First Place," in Richard A. Shweder, Martha Minow and Hazel Rose Markus (eds.), Engaging Cultural Differences: The Multicultural Challenge In Liberal Democracies, Russell Sage Foundation, 2002; also in Daedalus, 129(4), Fall 2000.
Shweder, Richard. "When Cultures Collide: Which Rights? Whose Tradition of Values? A Critique of the Global Anti-FGM Campaign," in Christiopher L. Eisgruber and András Sajó (eds.), Global Justice And the Bulwarks of Localism, Martinus Nijhoff, 2005, pp. 181–199.
Silverman, Eric K. "Anthropology and Circumcision", Annual Review of Anthropology, 33, 2004.
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Thiam, Awa. "Women's fight for the abolition of sexual mutilation", International Social Science Journal, 50(157), September 1998, pp. 381–386.
Thomas, Lynn M. Kigezo:" 'Ngaitana (I will circumcise myself)': The Gender and Generational Politics of the 1956 Ban on Clitoridectomy in Meru, Kenya", Gender and History, 8(3), November 1996, pp. 338–363.
Thomas, Lynn M. Kigezo:" 'Ngaitana (I will circumcise myself)': Lessons from Colonial Campaigns to Ban Excision in Meru, Kenya" in Bettina Shell-Duncan and Ylva Hernlund (eds.), Female "Circumcision" in Africa, Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2000.
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Toubia, Nahid. "Female Circumcision as a Public Health Issue", The New England Journal of Medicine, 331(11), 1994, pp. 712–716.
Toubia, Nahid and Sharief, Eiman Hussein. "Female genital mutilation: have we made progress?", International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 82(3), September 2003, pp. 251–261.
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Walley, Christine J. "Searching for 'Voices': Feminism, Anthropology, and the Global Over Female Genital Operations," in Stanlie M. James and Claire C. Robertson (eds.), Genital Cutting and Transnational Sisterhood, University of Illinois Press, 2002.
Wangila, Mary Nyangweso. Female Circumcision: The Interplay of Religion, Culture and Gender in Kenya, Orbis Books, 2007.
Werblowsky, R.J. Zwi; Wigoder, R.J. and Geoffrey (eds.). The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion, Oxford University Press, 1997.
Yasin, Berivan A. et al. "Female genital mutilation among Iraqi Kurdish women: a cross-sectional study from Erbil city", BMC Public Health, 13, September 2013.
Yoder, Stanley P. and Khan, Shane. "Numbers of women circumcised in Africa", USAID, March 2008.
Zabus, Chantal. "Between Rites and Rights: Excision on Trial in African Women's Texts and Human Contexts," in Peter H. Marsden and Geoffrey V. Davis (eds.), Towards a Transcultural Future: Literature and Human Rights in a ' Post'-Colonial World, Rodopi, 2004.
Zabus, Chantal. "The Excised Body in African Texts and Contexts," in Merete Falck Borch (ed.), Bodies and Voices: The Force-field of Representation and Discourse in Colonial and Postcolonial Studies, Rodopi, 2008.

Marejeo mengine[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Commons-logo.svg
Wikimedia Commons ina media kuhusu:
Resources
"Factsheet on FGM", World Health Organization, February 2013.
British National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children 24-hour national helpline for children at risk of FGM: 0800 028 3550
FORWARD, London, charity specializing in FGM research (FORWARD's list of hospitals and clinics in the UK offering specialist FGM services).
Desert Flower Foundation ("First Desert Flower Center opens in Berlin", 16 September 2013, first dedicated FGM clinic in Europe).
"Circumcision, female", The Kinsey Institute (bibliography 1960s–1980s).
Westley, David M. "Female circumcision and infibulation in Africa", Electronic Journal of Africana Bibliography, 4, 1999 (bibliography up to 1997).
The Guardian. FGM archive.
The Guardian. "The facts about female genital mutilation – interactive", interactive display showing facts and figures from UNICEF, 22 July 2013.
Books, articles
Bryk, Felix. Circumcision in Man and Woman: Its History, Psychology, and Ethnology, The Minerva Group, Inc., 2001, first published 1934.
CNN. Report on FGM in Egypt, February 2009.
Cullen-Dupont, Kathryn. "Female genital mutilation," Encyclopedia of Women's History in America, Da Capo Press, 1998, p. 85.
Dorkenoo, Efua. "Combating Female Genital Mutilation: An Agenda for the Next Decade," in Mona Eliasson (ed.). Teaching about Violence Against Women, Feminist Press at CUNY, 1999.
Dorkenoo, Efua. "Cutting the Rose: Female Genital Mutilation, the Practice and its Prevention, Minority Rights Group, 1994.
Gollaher, David. "Female circumcision," Circumcision: A History of the World's Most Controversial Surgery, Basic Books, 2000, p. 187ff.
Kouba, Leonard J. and Muasher, Judith. "Female Circumcision in Africa: An Overview", African Studies Review, 28(1), March 1985, pp. 95–110.
Sanderson, Lillian Passmore. Against the Mutilation of Women: The Struggle to End Unnecessary Suffering, Ithaca Press, 1981.
Sembène, Ousmane. Moolaadé, 2004, a film about abandoning FGM.
Sinclair, Stephanie. "Inside a Female-Circumcision Ceremony", The New York Times magazine, April 2006, slideshow of images from Indonesia (article).
UNICEF. "Towards the abandonment of female genital mutilation in five African countries", October 2010.
Yoder, P. Stanley; Noureddine, Abderrahim; Arlinda, Zhuzhuni. "Female Genital Cutting in the Demographic and Health Surveys: A Critical and Comparative Analysis", DHS Comparative Reports No. 7, 2004.
Personal stories
Ali, Ayaan Hirsi. Infidel: My Life, Simon & Schuster, 2007: Ali experiences FGM at the hands of her grandmother.
Dirie, Waris. Desert Flower, Harper Perennial, 1999: autobiographical novel.
Dirie, Waris. Desert Dawn, Little, Brown, 2003: Dirie's work as UN Special Ambassador against FGM.
Dirie, Waris. Desert Children, Virago, 2007: FGM in Europe
Kasinga, Fauziya, and Bashir, Layli Miller. Do They Hear You When You Cry, Delacorte Press, 1998.
El Saadawi, Nawal. Woman at Point Zero, Zed Books, 1975.