Tabaka (jamii)

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Matabaka matatu ya Ulaya kabla ya Mapinduzi ya Kifaransa: mkulima akibeba watu wa matabaka ya juu.

Tabaka katika jamii ni kundi la watu linalotofautiana na mengine kwa hali ya elimu, mali au asili. Tofauti kati ya matabaka zinaweza kuwa kubwa mno na kusababisha utovu wa haki.

Hasa huko India, mtu aliyezaliwa katika tabaka fulani hawezi kupanda chati, hata kama akitajirika, tena watoto wake wataendelea kuhesabiwa wa tabaka hilohilo la mababu wao.

Katika nchi nyingi, matabaka yanategemea hasa uchumi, hivyo kila mtu anaweza kupanda na vilevile kushuka, hata ghafla[1][2].

Pengine wanatofautishwa:

  1. Mabwanyenye, yaani matajiri wa kupindukia
  2. Walala heri, yaani wenye kipato cha kati
  3. Walala hai, yaani wenye chakula cha kutosha, lakini si zaidi
  4. Walala hoi, yaani maskini
  5. Fukara/hohehahe, yaani maskini wa kupindukia

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. (2004) "Class, Social", in Kuper, Adam: The social science encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis, 111. ISBN 978-0-415-32096-2. 
  2. Penney, Robert (2003). "Class, social", Encyclopedia of community: from the village to the virtual world, Volume 1. SAGE, 189. ISBN 978-0-7619-2598-9. 

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Archer, Louise et al. Higher Education and Social Class: Issues of Exclusion and Inclusion (RoutledgeFalmer, 2003) (ISBN|0-415-27644-6)
  • Aronowitz, Stanley, How Class Works: Power and Social Movement, Yale University Press, 2003. ISBN|0-300-10504-5
  • Barbrook, Richard (2006). The Class of the New, paperback, London: OpenMute. ISBN 978-0-9550664-7-4. 
  • Beckert, Sven, and Julia B. Rosenbaum, eds. The American Bourgeoisie: Distinction and Identity in the Nineteenth Century (Palgrave Macmillan; 2011) 284 pages; Scholarly studies on the habits, manners, networks, institutions, and public roles of the American middle class with a focus on cities in the North.
  • Benschop, Albert. Classes – Transformational Class Analysis (Amsterdam: Spinhuis; 1993/2012).
  • Bertaux, Daniel & Thomson, Paul; Pathways to Social Class: A Qualitative Approach to Social Mobility (Clarendon Press, 1997)
  • Bisson, Thomas N.; Cultures of Power: Lordship, Status, and Process in Twelfth-Century Europe (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995)
  • Blackledge, Paul. "Why workers can change the world". Archived from the original on 10 December 2011. 
  • Blau, Peter & Duncan Otis D.; The American Occupational Structure (1967) classic study of structure and mobility
  • Brady, David "Rethinking the Sociological Measurement of Poverty" Social Forces Vol. 81 No.3, (March 2003), pp. 715–51 (abstract online in Project Muse).
  • Broom, Leonard & Jones, F. Lancaster; Opportunity and Attainment in Australia (1977)
  • Cohen, Lizabeth; Consumer's Republic, (Knopf, 2003) (ISBN 0-375-40750-2Script error: No such module "check isxn".). (Historical analysis of the working out of class in the United States).
  • Connell, R.W and Irving, T.H., 1992. Class Structure in Australian History: Poverty and Progress. Longman Cheshire.
  • de Ste. Croix, Geoffrey (July–August 1984). "Class in Marx's conception of history, ancient and modern". New Left Review I (146): 94–111. http://newleftreview.org/I/146/geoffrey-de-ste-croix-class-in-marx-s-conception-of-history-ancient-and-modern. (Good study of Marx's concept.)
  • Dargin, Justin The Birth of Russia's Energy Class, Asia Times (2007) (good study of contemporary class formation in Russia, post communism)
  • Day, Gary; Class, (Routledge, 2001) (ISBN|0-415-18222-0)
  • Domhoff, G. William, Who Rules America? Power, Politics, and Social Change, Englewood Cliffs, NJ : Prentice-Hall, 1967. (Prof. Domhoff's companion site to the book at the University of California, Santa Cruz)
  • Eichar, Douglas M.; Occupation and Class Consciousness in America (Greenwood Press, 1989)
  • Fantasia, Rick; Levine, Rhonda F.; McNall, Scott G., eds.; Bringing Class Back in Contemporary and Historical Perspectives (Westview Press, 1991)
  • Featherman, David L. & Hauser Robert M.; Opportunity and Change (1978).
  • Fotopoulos, Takis, Class Divisions Today: The Inclusive Democracy approach, Democracy & Nature, Vol. 6, No. 2, (July 2000)
  • Fussell, Paul; Class (a painfully accurate guide through the American status system), (1983) (ISBN|0-345-31816-1)
  • Giddens, Anthony; The Class Structure of the Advanced Societies, (London: Hutchinson, 1981).
  • Giddens, Anthony & Mackenzie, Gavin (Eds.), Social Class and the Division of Labour. Essays in Honour of Ilya Neustadt (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982).
  • Goldthorpe, John H. & Erikson Robert; The Constant Flux: A Study of Class Mobility in Industrial Society (1992)
  • Grusky, David B. ed.; Social Stratification: Class, Race, and Gender in Sociological Perspective (2001) scholarly articles
  • Hazelrigg, Lawrence E. & Lopreato, Joseph; Class, Conflict, and Mobility: Theories and Studies of Class Structure (1972).
  • Hymowitz, Kay; Marriage and Caste in America: Separate and Unequal Families in a Post-Marital Age (2006) ISBN|1-56663-709-0
  • Kaeble, Helmut; Social Mobility in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries: Europe and America in Comparative Perspective (1985)
  • Jens Hoff, "The Concept of Class and Public Employees". Acta Sociologica, vol. 28, no. 3, July 1985, pp. 207–26.
  • Mahalingam, Ramaswami; "Essentialism, Culture, and Power: Representations of Social Class" Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 59, (2003), pp. 733+ on India
  • Mahony, Pat & Zmroczek, Christine; Class Matters: 'Working-Class' Women's Perspectives on Social Class (Taylor & Francis, 1997)
  • Manza, Jeff & Brooks, Clem; Social Cleavages and Political Change: Voter Alignments and U.S. Party Coalitions (Oxford University Press, 1999).
  • Manza, Jeff; "Political Sociological Models of the U.S. New Deal" Annual Review of Sociology, (2000) pp. 297+
  • Manza, Jeff; Hout, Michael; Clem, Brooks (1995). "Class Voting in Capitalist Democracies since World War II: Dealignment, Realignment, or Trendless Fluctuation?". Annual Review of Sociology 21: 137–62. doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.21.1.137
     .
  • Marmot, Michael; The Status Syndrome: How Social Standing Affects Our Health and Longevity (2004)
  • Marx, Karl & Engels, Frederick; The Communist Manifesto, (1848). (The key statement of class conflict as the driver of historical change).
  • Merriman, John M.; Consciousness and Class Experience in Nineteenth-Century Europe (Holmes & Meier Publishers, 1979)
  • Ostrander, Susan A.; Women of the Upper Class (Temple University Press, 1984).
  • Owensby, Brian P.; Intimate Ironies: Modernity and the Making of Middle-Class Lives in Brazil (Stanford University, 1999).
  • Pakulski, Jan & Waters, Malcolm; The Death of Class (Sage, 1996). (rejection of the relevance of class for modern societies)
  • Payne, Geoff; The Social Mobility of Women: Beyond Male Mobility Models (1990)
  • Savage, Mike; Class Analysis and Social Transformation (London: Open University Press, 2000).
  • Stahl, Garth; "Identity, Neoliberalism and Aspiration: Educating White Working-Class Boys" (London, Routledge, 2015).
  • Sennett, Richard & Cobb, Jonathan; The Hidden Injuries of Class, (Vintage, 1972) (classic study of the subjective experience of class).
  • Siegelbaum, Lewis H. & Suny, Ronald; eds.; Making Workers Soviet: Power, Class, and Identity. (Cornell University Press, 1994). Russia 1870–1940
  • Wlkowitz, Daniel J.; Working with Class: Social Workers and the Politics of Middle-Class Identity (University of North Carolina Press, 1999).
  • Weber, Max. "Class, Status and Party", in e.g. Gerth, Hans and C. Wright Mills, From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, (Oxford University Press, 1958). (Weber's key statement of the multiple nature of stratification).
  • Weinburg, Mark; "The Social Analysis of Three Early 19th century French liberals: Say, Comte, and Dunoyer", Journal of Libertarian Studies, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 45–63, (1978).
  • Wood, Ellen Meiksins; The Retreat from Class: A New 'True' Socialism, (Schocken Books, 1986) (ISBN|0-8052-7280-1) and (Verso Classics, January 1999) reprint with new introduction (ISBN|1-85984-270-4).
  • Wood, Ellen Meiksins; "Labor, the State, and Class Struggle", Monthly Review, Vol. 49, No. 3, (1997).
  • Wouters, Cas.; "The Integration of Social Classes". Journal of Social History. Volume 29, Issue 1, (1995). pp 107+. (on social manners)
  • Wright, Erik Olin; The Debate on Classes (Verso, 1990). (neo-Marxist)
  • Wright, Erik Olin; Class Counts: Comparative Studies in Class Analysis (Cambridge University Press, 1997)
  • Wright, Erik Olin ed. Approaches to Class Analysis (2005). (scholarly articles)
  • Zmroczek, Christine & Mahony, Pat (Eds.), Women and Social Class: International Feminist Perspectives. (London: UCL Press 1999)
  • The lower your social class, the ‘wiser’ you are, suggests new study. Science. 20 December 2017.

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