Nyuki wasiodunga

Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Nyuki wasiodunga
Nyuki asiyedunga (Axestotrigona ferruginea)
Nyuki asiyedunga (Axestotrigona ferruginea)
Uainishaji wa kisayansi
Himaya: Animalia (Wanyama)
Faila: Arthropoda (Wanyama wenye mwili wenye viungo)
Nusufaila: Hexapoda (Wanyama wenye miguu sita)
Ngeli: Insecta (Wadudu)
Ngeli ya chini: Pterygota (Wadudu wenye mabawa)
Oda: Hymenoptera (Wadudu wenye mabawa mangavu)
Nusuoda: Apocrita (Hymenoptera wenye kiuno chembamba sana)
Familia: Apidae (Nyuki)
Nusufamilia: Apinae
Latreille, 1802
Kabila: Meliponini
Lepeletier, 1836
Ngazi za chini

Jenasi 57, 10 katika Afrika:

Nyuki wasiodunga (pia huitwa nyuki wadogo; kwa Kiingereza: "stingless bees") ni kundi kubwa la nyuki (kama spishi 550 zilizoelezewa) kwenye kabila la Meliponini.[1] [2] Waandishi wengine huwaweka kwenye nusukabila Meliponina.[3] Nyuki wasiodunga wapo kwenye familia ya Apidae, na wanahusiana kwa karibu na aina nyingine za nyuki wakiwemo nyuki-asali, nyuki-bungu pamoja na nyuki wa jenasi za Bombus na Euglossini (nyuki-okidi).[2][4]

Nyuki wa kabila Meliponini wana msumari au kichomaji japokua ni mdogo sana na hautumiki kwenye kujilinda kama nyuki wengine mfano nyuki wa jenasi ya Apis. Badala yake wanatumia mbinu nyingine za kujilinda. Nyuki wa kabila la Meliponini sio aina pekee ya nyuki wasiodunga; nyuki wote wa kiume na nyuki wa kike wa wa baadhi ya familia nyininge kama Andrenidae pia hawadungi. [1] Baadhi ya nyuki wasiodunga wanaweza kung'ata kwa nguvu.[5]

Nyuki wasiodunga ni aina ya wadudu wa kijamii ambao huishi kwa makundi yenye mgawanyo wa kazi ndani yake. [6]

Jiografia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Nyuki wasiodunga wanapatikana maeneo mengi ya kitropiki duniani kote ikiwemo maeneo ya Afrika, Australia, Asia na Amerika.[1] [2][3][7] Inasemekana asili ya nyuki wasiodunga ni Amerika ya kusini kwa sababu mbalimbali ikiwemo wingi wa spishi kulinganisha na maeneo mengine, uwepo wa spishi za zamani na uwepo wa spishi zenye utofauti mkubwa.[8]

Nyuki wasiodunga wa Afrika[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Kutoka Afrika spishi 34 za nyuki wasiodunga zimeelezwa, ambazo zimegawanyika katika jenasi 10. Utafiti wa uanishaji wa kisayansi wa nyuki wasiodunga bado unaendelea. [9] Afrika ya kati na Afrika Mashariki kuna spishi aina tofauti nyingi zaidi kushinda maeneo mengine ya Afrika ambapo jumla ya spishi 17 hupatikana kwenye kila moja ya maeneo hayo. Afrika Magharibi spishi 14, na Kusini mwa Afrika spishi 10. Spishi ya Meliponula roubiki inapatikana nchini Gabon pekee [6]. Spishi za nyuki wasiodunga wapatikanao Afrika ni:

  • Apotrigona nebulata (Smith, 1854)
  • Axestotrigona cameroonensis (Friese, 1900)
  • Axestotrigona erythra (Schletterer, 1891)
  • Axestotrigona ferruginea (Lepeletier, 1836)
  • Axestotrigona richardsi (Darchen, 1981)
  • Axestotrigona simpsoni Moure,1961
  • Axestotrigona togoensis (Stadelmann, 1895)
  • Cleptotrigona cubiceps (Friese, 1912)
  • Dactylurina schmidti (Stadelmann, 1895)
  • Dactylurina staudingeri (Gribodo, 1893)
  • Hypotrigona araujoi (Michener, 1959)
  • Hypotrigona gribodoi (Magretti, 1884)
  • Hypotrigona ruspolii (Magretti, 1898)
  • Hypotrigona squamuligera (Benoist, 1937)
  • Liotrigona baleensis Pauly & Hora, 2013
  • Liotrigona betsimisaraka Pauly, 2001
  • Liotrigona bitika Brooks & Michener, 1988
  • Liotrigona bottegoi (Magretti, 1895)
  • Liotrigona chromensis Pauly, 2001
  • Liotrigona gabonensis Pauly & Fabre Anguilet[6]
  • Liotrigona kinzelbachi Koch, 2010
  • Liotrigona madecassa (Saussure, 1890)
  • Liotrigona mahafalya Brooks & Michener, 1988
  • Liotrigona nilssoni Michener, 1990
  • Liotrigona parvula Darchen, 1971
  • Liotrigona voeltzkovi (Friese, 1900)
  • Meliplebeia beccarii (Gribodo, 1879)
  • Meliplebeia gambiana Moure, 1961
  • Meliplebeia roubiki (Eardley, 2004)
  • Meliponula bocandei (Spinola, 1853)
  • Plebeiella griswoldorum (Eardley, 2004)
  • Plebeiella lendliana] (Friese, 1900)
  • Plebeina armata (Magretti, 1895)

Nyuki wasiodunga hupatikana zaidi kwenye misitu na kwa kiasi kidogo kwenye savana. Hujenga makazi yao na kuishi maeneo mbalimali ikiwemo kwenye miti, maeneo ya wazi ya ndani ya miti, ardhini au kwenye vichuguu.[6]

Umuhimu na matumizi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Nyuki wasiodunga wana umuhimu mkubwa kwenye ikolojia na hata uchumi. Wanatoa huduma za uchavushaji wa mimea na mazao mbalimbali, hivyo kuchaninga kwenye kutunza bionuwai na uzalishaji wa mazao ya kilimo.[6]

Baadhi ya spishi za nyuki wasiodunga hufugwa kwa ajili ya asali ambayo ina thamani kubwa na inasemekana kua tiba ya magonjwa mbalimbali.[9]

Jenasi za nyuki wasiodunga wanaotengeneza asali[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Michener, C D. The bees of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press, 972 pp.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Grüter, Christoph (2020). Stingless Bees: Their Behaviour, Ecology and Evolution, Fascinating Life Sciences. Springer New York. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-60090-7. ISBN 978-3-030-60089-1. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Silveira, F A; Melo, G A R; Almeida, E A B. 2002. Abelhas Brasileiras: Sistemática e Identificação. Fernando A. Silveira, 253 pp.
  4. Roubik, D W. 1989. Ecology and Natural History of Tropical Bees. Cambridge Tropical Biology Series, 528 pp.
  5. Sarchet, Penny. Zoologger: Stingless suicidal bees bite until they die (en-US).
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Anguilet, Edgard Cédric Fabre; Nguyen, Bach Kim; Ndong, Toussaint Bengone; Haubruge, Éric; Francis, Frédéric (2015). "Meliponini and Apini in Africa (Apidae: Apinae): a review on the challenges and stakes bound to their diversity and their distribution". Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment (19:4): 382-391. https://popups.uliege.be/1780-4507/.
  7. Rasmussen, Claus; Thomas, Jennifer C; Engel, Michael S (2017). "A New Genus of Eastern Hemisphere Stingless Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), with a Key to the Supraspecific Groups of Indomalayan and Australasian Meliponini". American Museum Novitates (3888): 1–33. doi:10.1206/3888.1 . http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/bitstream/2246/6817/1/N3888.pdf.
  8. Kerr, Warwick E; Maule, Vilma (1964). "Geographic Distribution of Stingless Bees and Its Implications (Hymenoptera: Apidae)". Journal of the New York Entomological Society (72:1): 2–18. https://www.jstor.org/stable/25005888.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Njau, Marcelian A.; Mturi, Fatina A.; Mpuya, Pauline M. (2010). "Options for stingless honey-beekeeping around Udzungwa Mountains National Park, Tanzania, and implications for biodiversity management". International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management (6:6). https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/21513732.2010.537699.
  10. Rasmussen, Claus (2013-05-10). "Stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) of the Indian subcontinent: Diversity, taxonomy and current status of knowledge". Zootaxa 3647 (3): 401–428. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3647.3.1 . ISSN 1175-5334 . PMID 26295116 .