Kiurdu

Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru
Rukia: urambazaji, tafuta

Kiurdu ni aina ya lugha ya Kihindi iliyosanifiwa.

Ndiyo lugha rasmi ya Pakistan na ya majimbo 6 ya India (katika nchi hiyo ni mojawapo kati ya 22 zinazokubaliwa na katiba).

Kwa kawaida kinaandikwa kwa herufi za Kiarabu kutokana na uhusiano wake na dini ya Uislamu.

Wanaokitumia kama lugha mama ni watu milioni 65.

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Henry Blochmann (1877). English and Urdu dictionary, romanized, 8, CALCUTTA: Printed at the Baptist mission press for the Calcutta school-book society, 215. Retrieved on 6 July 2011. the University of Michigan
  • John Dowson (1908). A grammar of the Urdū or Hindūstānī language, 3, LONDON: K. Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., ltd., 264. Retrieved on 6 July 2011. the University of Michigan
  • John Dowson (1872). A grammar of the Urdū or Hindūstānī language. LONDON: Trübner & Co., 264. Retrieved on 6 July 2011. Oxford University
  • John Thompson Platts (1874). A grammar of the Hindūstānī or Urdū language Volume 6423 of Harvard College Library preservation microfilm program. LONDON: W.H. Allen, 399. Retrieved on 6 July 2011. Oxford University
  • John Thompson Platts (1892). A grammar of the Hindūstānī or Urdū language. LONDON: W.H. Allen, 399. Retrieved on 6 July 2011. the New York Public Library
  • John Thompson Platts (1884). A dictionary of Urdū, classical Hindī, and English, reprint, LONDON: H. Milford, 1259. Retrieved on 6 July 2011. Oxford University
  • Ahmad, Rizwan. 2006. "Voices people write: Examining Urdu in Devanagari"
  • Alam, Muzaffar. 1998. "The Pursuit of Persian: Language in Mughal Politics." In Modern Asian Studies, vol. 32, no. 2. (May, 1998), pp. 317–349.
  • Asher, R. E. (Ed.). 1994. The Encyclopedia of language and linguistics. Oxford: Pergamon Press. ISBN 0-08-035943-4.
  • Azad, Muhammad Husain. 2001 [1907]. Aab-e hayat (Lahore: Naval Kishor Gais Printing Works) 1907 [in Urdu]; (Delhi: Oxford University Press) 2001. [In English translation]
  • Azim, Anwar. 1975. Urdu a victim of cultural genocide. In Z. Imam (Ed.), Muslims in India (p. 259).
  • Bhatia, Tej K. 1996. Colloquial Hindi: The Complete Course for Beginners. London, UK & New York, NY: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-11087-4 (Book), 0415110882 (Cassettes), 0415110890 (Book & Cassette Course)
  • Bhatia, Tej K. and Koul Ashok. 2000. "Colloquial Urdu: The Complete Course for Beginners." London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-13540-0 (Book); ISBN 0-415-13541-9 (cassette); ISBN 0-415-13542-7 (book and casseettes course)
  • Chatterji, Suniti K. 1960. Indo-Aryan and Hindi (rev. 2nd ed.). Calcutta: Firma K.L. Mukhopadhyay.
  • Dua, Hans R. 1992. "Hindi-Urdu as a pluricentric language". In M. G. Clyne (Ed.), Pluricentric languages: Differing norms in different nations. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-012855-1.
  • Dua, Hans R. 1994a. Hindustani. In Asher, 1994; pp. 1554.
  • Dua, Hans R. 1994b. Urdu. In Asher, 1994; pp. 4863–4864.
  • Durrani, Attash, Dr. 2008. Pakistani Urdu.Islamabad: National Language Authority, Pakistan.
  • Gumperz, J.J. (1982). Discourse Strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Hassan, Nazir and Omkar N. Koul 1980. Urdu Phonetic Reader. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages.
  • Syed Maqsud Jamil. "The Literary Heritage of Urdu", Daily Star, 16 June 2006. 
  • Kelkar, A. R. 1968. Studies in Hindi-Urdu: Introduction and word phonology. Poona: Deccan College.
  • Khan, M. H. 1969. Urdu. In T. A. Sebeok (Ed.), Current trends in linguistics (Vol. 5). The Hague: Mouton.
  • King, Christopher R. 1994. One Language, Two Scripts: The Hindi Movement in Nineteenth Century North India. Bombay: Oxford University Press.
  • Koul, Ashok K. 2008. Urdu Script and Vocabulary. Delhi: Indian Institute of Language Studies.
  • Koul, Omkar N. 1994. Hindi Phonetic Reader. Delhi: Indian Institute of Language Studies.
  • Koul, Omkar N. 2008. Modern Hindi Grammar. Springfield: Dunwoody Press.
  • Narang, G. C. and D. A. Becker. 1971. Aspiration and nasalization in the generative phonology of Hindi-Urdu. Language, 47, 646–767.
  • Ohala, M. 1972. Topics in Hindi-Urdu phonology. (PhD dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles).
  • "A Desertful of Roses", a site about Ghalib's Urdu ghazals by Dr. Frances W. Pritchett, Professor of Modern Indic Languages at Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
  • Phukan, S. 2000. The Rustic Beloved: Ecology of Hindi in a Persianate World, The Annual of Urdu Studies, vol 15, issue 5, pp. 1–30
  • The Comparative study of Urdu and Khowar. Badshah Munir Bukhari National Language Authority Pakistan 2003.
  • Rai, Amrit. 1984. A house divided: The origin and development of Hindi-Hindustani. Delhi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-561643-X.
  • Snell, Rupert Teach yourself Hindi: A complete guide for beginners. Lincolnwood, IL: NTC
  • Pimsleur, Dr. Paul, "Free Urdu Audio Lesson"
  • The poisonous potency of script: Hindi and Urdu, ROBERT D. KING

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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