Majadiliano:Utoaji mimba

Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Huyu jamaa ametumia tafsiri ya Google kufuta kabisa ukurasa niliouandika mimi awali. Sidhani kwamba ni sawa. Tena ukurasa huohuo wa Kiingereza ulikuwa umeshatafsiriwa na Google kwa jina la Kuavya mimba. Naomba wakabidhi waingilie kati. --Riccardo Riccioni (majadiliano) 07:59, 8 Oktoba 2010 (UTC)

Naona tayari umerudisha toleo lako la awali. Tena umeongeza na makala nyingine ya kuisukuma! Sikutka kuingilia awali kwa sababu niliamini ya kwamba unajua nini cha kufanya! Ulichofanya ni kulinganisha baina ya makala yako ya awali na huyu "aliyepandishia" na kuona ya kwamba amevurunda na bora kurudisha toleo la awali. Basi tuendelee na hongera maongezeko yako rundo!--MwanaharakatiLonga 06:02, 11 Oktoba 2010 (UTC)

Maudhui zaidi[hariri chanzo]

Maudhui zaidi unaweza kutaka kuongeza kutoka EN Wikpedia, iliyotafsiriwa na Watafsiri wasio na mipaka.

Induced abortion
Mwainisho na taarifa za nje
ICD-10 G04.
ICD-9 779.6
DiseasesDB 4153
MedlinePlus 002912
eMedicine article/252560

Uavyaji ni ukatizaji mimba kwa kutoa au kulazimisha fetasi aukijusi kitoke kwenye tumbo la uzazi, kabla kiweze kuishi kwa kujitegemea. Uavyaji unaweza kutokea ghafla, ambapo mara nyingi hujulikana kama uavyaji ghafla. Uavyaji unaweza kusababishwa makusudi, ambapo utajulikana kama uavyaji wa mimba uliopangiwa. Neno uavyaji mara nyingi humaanisha uavyaji uliopangiwa wa mimba ya binadamu. Utaratibu sawa ambapo fetasi inaweza kuendelea kuishi baada ya kuavwa hujulikana kitabibu kama "ukatizaji uliochelewa wa mimba".[2]

Utabibu wa kisasa hutumia matibabu au mbinu za upasuaji za kuavya mimba iliyopangiwa. Aina mbili za dawa aina ya mifepristone na prostaglandin hutumika kama mbinu ya upasuaji katika trimesta ya kwanza.[3][4] Ingawa dawa zinaweza kufaulu zinapotutumika katika trimesta ya pili,[5] mbinu za upasuaji zinaaminika kuwa na kiwango cha chini cha hatari.[4] Dawa za kuzuia mimba, ikiwa ni pamoja natembe na kifaa cha kinachotiwa ndani ya uterasikinaweza kuanza kutumika punde baada ya kuavya.[4] Uavyaji mimba katika mataifa yaliyostawi una historia ndefu ya kuwa miongoni mwa taratibu salama zaidi katika utabibu ukihalalishwa kupitia sheria za nchi.[6][7] Uavyaji usiokumbwa na matatizo hausababishi athari za muda mrefu za uzima wa kiakili au kimwili.[8] Shirika la Afya Duniani linapendekeza viwango hivi salama na halali vya uavyaji viwezeshwe kupatikana kwa wanawake kote duniani.[9] Uavyaji hatari, hata hivyo, husababisha takriban visa 47,000 vya vifo vya wanawake wanaojifungua[8] na visa milioni 5 vya wanawake wanaolazwa hospitali kwa mwaka kote duniani.[10]

Takriban visa milioni 44 vya uavyaji hutekelezwa kila mwaka kote duniani, huku idadi ya chini ya nusu ya visa hivi vikifanywa kwa njia hatari. K. |last6=Bankole |first6=A. |doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61786-8 |title=Induced abortion: Incidence and trends worldwide from 1995 to 2008 |journal=The Lancet |volume=379 |issue=9816 |pages=625–632 |year=2012 |pmid=22264435 |url=http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/journals/Sedgh-Lancet-2012-01.pdf |format=PDF}}</ref>Viwango vya uavyaji vimebadilika kidogo tangu 2003 na 2008,[11] baada ya miongo mingi ya kupungua kufuatia kuboreshwa kwa ufikiaji wa elimu kuhusu mbinu za kupanga uzazi na kuzuia mimba.[12] As of 2008, asilimia arobaine ya wanawake kote duniani waliweza kutekeleza uavyaji uliohalalishwa kisheria "bila kuzuiwa kwa msingi wa sababu yoyote".[13] Hata hivyo, kuna kikomo cha ukubwa wa mimba inayoweza kuavywa.[13]

Uavyaji mimba uliopangiwa una historia maalum. Uavyaji umefanywa kwa mbinu kadhaa, ikiwa ni pamoja namiti shamba, kutumia vifaa vyenye makali, majeraha mabaya, na mbinu zingine za mbinu za kitamaduni tangu siku za kale.[14] sheria zinazohusu uavyaji, marudio ya idadi ya uavyaji, na hali zake za kimila na kidini hutofautiana kwa njia kubwa kote duniani. Katika baadhi ya miktadha, uavyaji umehalalishwa katika hali maalum, kama vile kujamiiana kwa maharimu, ubakaji, kutatizika kwa kijusi, masuala ya kijamii na kiuchumi au kuhatarishwa kwa afya ya mama.[15] Katika sehemu nyingi duniani, kuna utata wa umma kuhusu masuala ya kimaadili, kimaadili, na masuala ya kisheria kuhusu uavyaji. Watu ambaowanapinga uavyaji kwa kijumla huteta kwamba kijusi au fetasi ni binadamu aliye na haki ya uhai na huenda wakalinganisha uavyaji na mauaji.[16][17] Watu wanaounga mkono haki za uavyaji husisitiza kuhusu haki ya mwanamke ya kuamua kuhusu masuala ya mwili wake[18] na pia kusisitiza kuhusu haki za binadamu kwa kijumla.[9]

References[hariri chanzo]

  1. World Abortion Policies 2013. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Iliwekwa mnamo 31 July 2013.
  2. Grimes, DA; Stuart, G (2010). "Abortion jabberwocky: the need for better terminology". Contraception 81 (2): 93–6. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2009.09.005 . PMID 20103443 .
  3. Kulier, R; Kapp, N; Gülmezoglu, AM; Hofmeyr, GJ; Cheng, L; Campana, A (Nov 9, 2011). "Medical methods for first trimester abortion.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (11): CD002855. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002855.pub4 . PMID 22071804 .
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Kapp, N; Whyte, P; Tang, J; Jackson, E; Brahmi, D (Sep 2013). "A review of evidence for safe abortion care.". Contraception 88 (3): 350–63. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2012.10.027 . PMID 23261233 .
  5. Wildschut, H; Both, MI; Medema, S; Thomee, E; Wildhagen, MF; Kapp, N (Jan 19, 2011). "Medical methods for mid-trimester termination of pregnancy.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (1): CD005216. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005216.pub2 . PMID 21249669 .
  6. Grimes, D. A.; Benson, J.; Singh, S.; Romero, M.; Ganatra, B.; Okonofua, F. E.; Shah, I. H. (2006). "Unsafe abortion: The preventable pandemic" (PDF). The Lancet 368 (9550): 1908–1919. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69481-6 . PMID 17126724 . http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/general/lancet_4.pdf.
  7. Raymond, EG; Grossman, D; Weaver, MA; Toti, S; Winikoff, B (Nov 2014). "Mortality of induced abortion, other outpatient surgical procedures and common activities in the United States.". Contraception 90 (5): 476–479. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2014.07.012 . PMID 25152259 .
  8. 8.0 8.1 Lohr, P. A.; Fjerstad, M.; Desilva, U.; Lyus, R. (2014). "Abortion". BMJ 348: f7553. doi:10.1136/bmj.f7553 .
  9. 9.0 9.1 (2012) Safe abortion: technical and policy guidance for health systems, 2nd ed., Geneva: World Health Organization, 8. ISBN 9789241548434. 
  10. Shah, I.; Ahman, E. (December 2009). "Unsafe abortion: global and regional incidence, trends, consequences, and challenges" (PDF). Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada 31 (12): 1149–58. PMID 20085681 . http://www.sogc.org/jogc/abstracts/full/200912_WomensHealth_1.pdf.
  11. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Sedgh 2012
  12. Sedgh G, Henshaw SK, Singh S, Bankole A, Drescher J (September 2007). "Legal abortion worldwide: incidence and recent trends". Int Fam Plan Perspect 33 (3): 106–116. doi:10.1363/ifpp.33.106.07 . PMID 17938093 . http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/journals/3310607.html.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Culwell KR, Vekemans M, de Silva U, Hurwitz M (July 2010). "Critical gaps in universal access to reproductive health: Contraception and prevention of unsafe abortion". International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 110: S13–16. doi:10.1016/j.ijgo.2010.04.003 . PMID 20451196 .
  14. Joffe, Carole (2009). "1. Uavyaji na utabibu: A sociopolitical history", Management of Unintended and Abnormal Pregnancy (PDF), 1st, Oxford, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.. ISBN 978-1-4443-1293-5. 
  15. Boland, R.; Katzive, L. (2008). "Developments in Laws on Induced Abortion: 1998–2007". International Family Planning Perspectives 34 (3): 110–120. doi:10.1363/ifpp.34.110.08 . PMID 18957353 . http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/journals/3411008.html.
  16. Pastor Mark Driscoll. "What do 55 million people have in common?", Fox News, 18 October 2013. Retrieved on 2 July 2014. 
  17. Dale Hansen. "Abortion: Murder, or Medical Procedure?", Huffington Post, 18 March 2014. Retrieved on 2 July 2014. 
  18. (2013) Reproductive Freedom, Torture and International Human Rights Challenging the Masculinisation of Torture.. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis, 3. ISBN 9781135115227. 

Lucas559 (majadiliano) 16:36, 17 Agosti 2015 (UTC)