Khoikhoi

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Mwanamume Khoikhoi.
Wakhoikhoi wakijiandaa kuhama na mahema yao. Mchoro wa Samuel Daniell (1805).

Khoikhoi (au Khoekhoe[1]; kwa lugha yao maana ni "watu watu", "watu halisi"[2] [3]) ni wakazi asili wa Kusini mwa Afrika pamoja na Wasan, ambao kwa jumla wanaitwa Khoisan.

Tofauti kati yao ni hasa utamaduni, kwa maana Wasan (kwa maana halisi "Wagunduzi").[4] wanaendelea kwa kiasi kikubwa kuishi kwa uwindaji, wakati Khoikhoi toka muda mrefu wanategemea ufugaji wa kuhamahama na kilimo[5].

Kadiri ya akiolojia walifikia eneo la Cape Town miaka 2,000 iliyopita wakitokea kaskazini (Botswana ya leo).

Kuanzia karne ya 3 BK walifikiwa na wavamizi wa Kibantu waliojitwalia maeneo mazuri zaidi.

Ingawa ni wazi kuwa uwepo wa Khoekhoen Kusini mwa Afrika unatangulia upanuzi wa Wabantu, kulingana na nadharia ya kisayansi inayotokana na ushahidi wa kilugha, haijulikani ni lini Wakhoekhoe walianza kukaa katika maeneo ambayo mawasiliano ya kwanza na Wazungu yalitokea (labda katika Umri wa Jiwe la kale).[4] Wakati huo, katika karne ya 17, Wakhoekhoe walitunza ng'ombe wengi wa aina ya Nguni katika mkoa wa Cape. Ufugaji wao wa kuhamahama uliachwa zaidi katika karne ya 19 hadi ya 20.[6]

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. Jina la "Khoekhoe" kwa kweli ni anwani ya zamani au ya sifa, sio jina la kikabila, lakini limetumika katika fasihi kama neno la kikabila kwa watu wanaozungumza Khoe Kusini mwa Afrika, haswa vikundi vya wafugaji, kama vile! Ora, Gona, Nama, Xiri na mataifa ya ūNūkhoe.
  2. "The old Dutch also did not know that their so-called Hottentots formed only one branch of a wide-spread race, of which the other branch divided into ever so many tribes, differing from each other totally in language [...] While the so-called Hottentots called themselves Khoikhoi (men of men, i.e. men par excellence), they called those other tribes , the Sonqua of the Cape Records [...] We should apply the term Hottentot to the whole race, and call the two families, each by the native name, that is the one, the Khoikhoi, the so-called Hottentot proper; the other the Sān () or Bushmen." Theophilus Hahn, Tsuni-||Goam: The Supreme Being to the Khoi-Khoi (1881), uk. 3.
  3. "Hottentot, n. and adj." OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2018, www.oed.com/view/Entry/88829. Accessed 13 May 2018. Citing G. S. Nienaber, 'The origin of the name “Hottentot” ', African Studies, 22:2 (1963), 65-90, doi:10.1080/00020186308707174. "Report of the South African Association for the Advancement of Science" angalia pia. "A Note on Terminology". Darwin's Sacred Cause: How a Hatred of Slavery Shaped Darwin's Views on Human Evolution.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Barnard, Alan (1992-02-28). Hunters and Herders of Southern Africa: A Comparative Ethnography of the Khoisan Peoples (in en). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-42865-1. 
  5. "8: Wildlife and Livestock in South Africa", The Unending Frontier: An Environmental History of the Early Modern World, California World History Library 1. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 296. ISBN 9780520939356. “The nomadic pastoral Khoikhoi kraals were dispersed and their organization and culture broken. However, their successors, the trekboers and their Khoikhoi servants, managed flocks and herds similar to those of the Khoikhois. The trekboers had adapted to African-style, extensive pastoralism in this region. In order to obtain optimal pasture for their animals, early settlers imitated the Khoikhoi seasonal transhumance movements and those observed in the larger wild herbivores.” 
  6. Richards, John F. (2003-05-15). The Unending Frontier: An Environmental History of the Early Modern World (in en). University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-93935-6. 

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • P. Kolben, Present State of the Cape of Good Hope (London, 1731–38);
  • A. Sparman, Voyage to the Cape of Good Hope (Perth, 1786);
  • Sir John Barrow, Travels into the Interior of South Africa (London, 1801);
  • Bleek, Wilhelm, Reynard the Fox in South Africa; or Hottentot Fables and Tales (London, 1864);
  • Emil Holub, Seven Years in South Africa (English translation, Boston, 1881);
  • G. W. Stow, Native Races of South Africa (New York, 1905);
  • A. R. Colquhoun, Africander Land (New York, 1906);
  • L. Schultze, Aus Namaland und Kalahari (Jena, 1907);
  • Meinhof, Carl, Die Sprachen der Hamiten (Hamburg, 1912);
  • Richard Elphick, Khoikhoi and the Founding of White South Africa (London, 1977)

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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