Jack the Ripper

Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru
Rukia: urambazaji, tafuta
Mchoro katika gazeti la "The Illustrated London News", 13 Oktoba 1888, inayojaribu kuonyesha picha ya muuaji

Jack the Ripper ni jina la kumtaja muuaji asiyejulikana kwa jina halisi ambaye aliua kinyama malaya angalau watano mjini London wakati wa mwaka 1888. Mauaji yote yalitokea katika mtaa wa Whitechapel kuanzia 31 Agosti hadi 9 Novemba 1888. Wakati ule barua zilifika magazetini na katika ofisi za polisi ambako waandishi walijivuna kuwa mtendaji wa mauaji haya na mwandishi mmoja alitia sahihi "Jack the Ripper". Magazeti yaliandika mengi juu ya mauaji ya mfululizo yaliyofanana na hivyo jina la "Jack the Ripper" lilikuwa maarufu sana. Majina mengine yaliyotumiwa wakati ule ni "Whitechapel Murderer" na "Leather Apron" (yaani "aproni ya ngozi") lakini umaarufu wa "Jack the Ripper" umebaki hadi leo.

Mazingira ya mauaji.[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Wakati ule London ilikuwa mji uliokua haraka sana. Sehemu ya Whitechapel ilikuwa n]]a wahamiaji wengi kutoka Ulaya bara hasa Ulaya ya Mashariki na kati yao Wayahudi wengi waliokimbia mashambulio ya pogromu dhidi ya Wayahudi katika Urusi[1]. Wengi walikuwa maskini waliokosa makaazi na kulala katika mabweni ya kukodi. Uhalifu na wizi zilitokea kwa wingi katika mazingira haya[2]. Wanawake wengine kati ya wahamiaji walitafuta riziki kwa njia ya umalaya. Taarifa za mashambulio dhidi ya wanawake zilizidi. Wakati wa Oktoba 188 polisi ilikadiria kuwepo kwa nyumba 62 za danguro na takriban wanawake 1,200 waliofanya kazi ya umalaya katika mtaa wa Whitechapel[3].


Ramani ya London ya miaka ya 1880 na alama zinaonyesha mahali pa mauaji 7 yaliyotokea katika mazingira ya mitaa michache (kesi 5 za uhakika na 2 zenye shaka kama zilikuwa kazi ya Jack the Ripper).

Mauaji ya 1888 katika Whitechapel[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Wanawake watano wanaodhaniwa kuwa wahanga wa "Jack the Ripper" walikuwa wafuatao

  • Mary Ann Nichols mwenye umri wa miaka 47, tarehe 31 Agosti
  • Annie Chapman mwenye umri wa miaka 42, tarehe 8 Septemba
  • Elizabeth Stride mwenye umri wa miaka 44, tarehe 30 Septemba
  • Catharine Eddowes mwenye umri wa miaka 46, tarehe 30 Septemba
  • Mary Jane Kelly mwenye umri wa miaka 25, tarehe 9 Novemba

Kulikuwa na maujai zaidi na polisi ilichungulia jumla ya kesi 11 zilizotokea Whitechapel kati ya Aprili 1888 na Februari 1891. Mawazo yalitofautiana kama zote zilitekelezwa na muuaji yeye yule. Lakini kesi tano zinazotajwa hapo juu zinaonyesha dalili za kusababishwa na mtu mmoja. Kati ya dalili hizi ni kukatwa kwa shingo, kufunguliwa kwa tumbo na kukatakata sehemu za uke na uso, pamoja na kutoa ogani za utumbo. [4]

Kwa jumla muuaji katika kesi hizi alipendelea kuua wahanga wakati wa usiku baina ya saa sita na saa kumi na mbili kwenye siku za wikendi. Mauaji haya yalitokea katika eneo la maili moja ya mraba. Maiti zilipatikana mahali walipouawa, hawakupelekwa mahali pengine[5]. Silaha ya mauaji ilikuwa kisu kikali. Wahanga waliuawa kwa njia ya kunyonga kabla ya kukatwa shingo.

Idadi kamili ya mauaji ya "Jack the Ripper" haijulikani. Maana wakati ule kulikuwa pia na mauaji mengine yasiyofanana kabisa na mtindo ulioonekana katika kesi 5 za uhakika zaidi. Kesi chache zilifanana kiasi au kidogo tu na hapo watafiti walijiuliza kama labda muuaji alikosa muda wa kumaliza alichotaka kutekeleza au kama mifano hii ilikuwa matendo ya watu wengine.[6]

Polisi ilifanya utafiti kesi tofauti 11 za mauaji ya wanawake katika Whitechapel kuanzia 3 Aprili 1888 hadi 13 Februari 1891 kwa jina la "mauaji ya Whitechapel".[7][8]


Barua[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Wakati habari za mauaji haya yalisambazwa magazetini kulikuwa na barua nyingi zilizofika kwa polisi au magazeti. [9] Barua hizi zilileta maoni namna ya kumshika muuaji, au maoni mbalimbali juu ya jinai hizi. [10]

Barua nyingi zilitungwa kwa kudai kuwa muuaji mwenyewe aliziandika.[11] na tatu kati ya hizi nyingi zimepata umaarufu: barua iliyoandikwa kwa "Dear Boss", kadi ya "Saucy Jacky" na barua "kutoka jahanam ("From Hell" letter).[12]

Barua inayoanza kwa maneno "Dear Boss" ya tarehe 25 Septemba yenye mhuri wa posta ya 27 Septemba 1888 ilipokelewa na shirika la habari la Central News Agency (London) na kupelekwa polisi ya Scotland Yard.[13] Mwanzoni ilitazamiwa kuwa mzaha mbaya lakini siku tatu baada ya tarehe ya mhuri wa barua maiti ya Eddowes ilipatikana na sehemu ya sikio ilikatwa. Hapa polisi iliangalia barua upya kwa sababu ilikuwa na maneno "masikio ya wakinamama yataktwa". [14] Barua hii ilitumia mara ya kwanza sahihi "Jack the Riper" na jina hili lilikuwa maaraufu baada ya kuchapishwa kwa barua magazetini.[15] Haikueleweka kama iliandikwa kweli na muuaji kwa sababu sikio halikutumwa kwa polisi jinsi barua iliwahi kutangaza.

Barua nyingi zilizofuata zilijaribu kuiga mfano huu hata kama ilikuwa wazi ziliandikwa na watu tofauti kutokana na maandishi [16]

Scrawled and misspelled note reading: From hell—Mr Lusk—Sir I send you half the kidne I took from one woman prasarved it for you tother piece I fried and ate it was very nise I may send you the bloody knif that took it out if you only wate a whil longer—Signed Catch me when you can Mishter Lusk
Barua ya "From Hell"

Postikadi ya "Saucy Jacky" iligongwa mhuri tarehe 1 Oktoba 1888 na kupokelewa siku ileile katika Central News Agency. Maandishi yalifanana na yale ya barua ya "Dear Boss" letter.[17] Ilirejea ya kwamba wahanga wawili waliuawa kwenye siku za karibu ("double event this time") na hii ilichukuliwa kama kurejea mauaji ya Stride and Eddowes.[18] Postikadi hii ilipelekwa posta kabla ya kutangazwa kwa mauaji aya mawili kwa hiyo mjanja aliyetaka kufanya mzaha asingekuwa na habari. [19].

Barua "From Hell" ilipokelewa na George Lusk kiongozi wa kamati ya ulinzi ya Whitechapel tarehe 16 Oktoba 1888. Maandishi hayakufanana na yale ya barua ya "Dear Boss" na postikadi ya "Saucy Jacky".[20] Ilifika pamoja na kisanduku chenye nusu ya figo iliyotunzwa katika alkoholi ethili.[20] Maiti ya Catharine Eddowes ilikutwa tarehe 30 Septemba ilhali figo moja ilikosekana. Mwandishi wa barua aliandika ya kwamba aliwahi kula nusu nyingine ya figo. Ndani ya polisi mawazo yalitofautiana kuhusu kipande cha figo. Wengine waliona ni ya Eddowes, wengine walidhani hii ni mzaha mbaya.[21][22] Utafiti wa figo ulionyesha kuwa ilikuwa figo la kibinadamu la upande wa kushoto.[23]

Polisi ya Scotland Yard ilitangaza kopi za barua ya "Dear Boss" na postikadi kwa tumaini ya kwamba msomaji angetambua maandishi ya mkono lakini bila mafanikio. Afisa mkuu wa polisi ya London Charles Warren aliamini ya kwamba barua zote zilikuwa mzaha [24]. Wengine waliona ya kwamba barua ziliandikwa na waandishi wa magazeti kwa shabaha ya kuuza nakala nyingi. [25] [26] Mwaka 1931 mwandishi wa gazeti Fred Best alisemekana ya kwamba aliwahi kutunga barua na kutia sahihi "Jack the Ripper" kwa shabaha ya kuboresha biashara ya gazeti lake. [27]

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. Kershen, Anne J., "The Immigrant Community of Whitechapel at the Time of the Jack the Ripper Murders", in Werner, pp. 65–97; Vaughan, Laura, "Mapping the East End Labyrinth", in Werner, p. 225
  2. Life and Labour of the People in London (London: Macmillan, 1902–1903) (The Charles Booth on-line archive) retrieved 5 August 2008
  3. Evans and Skinner, Jack the Ripper: Letters from Hell, p. 1; Police report dated 25 October 1888, MEPO 3/141 ff. 158–163, quoted in Evans and Skinner, The Ultimate Jack the Ripper Sourcebook, p. 283; Fido, p. 82; Rumbelow, p. 12
  4. Keppel, Robert D.; Weis, Joseph G.; Brown, Katherine M.; Welch, Kristen (2005), "The Jack the Ripper Murders: A Modus Operandi and Signature Analysis of the 1888–1891 Whitechapel Murders", Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, vol. 2, pp. 1–21 name="keppel"
  5. Hii ilionekana kutokana na wingi wa damu mahali pa maiti na ukosefu wa alama za damu penginepo, pamoja na nyayo za damu
  6. Woods, Paul; Baddeley, Gavin (2009). Saucy Jack: The Elusive Ripper. Hersham, Surrey: Ian Allan Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7110-3410-5, p. 20
  7. The Crimes, London Metropolitan Police, retrieved 1 October 2014 
  8. Cook, pp. 33–34; Evans and Skinner, The Ultimate Jack the Ripper Sourcebook, p. 3
  9. Mwanahabari Donald McCormick alikadiria idadi ya 2000 (linganisha Evans and Skinner, Jack the Ripper: Letters from Hell, p. 180). Gazeti la Illustrated Police News la tarehe 20 Oktoba 1888 iliandika kuwa polisi ilichungulia barua 700(ling. Evans and Skinner, Jack the Ripper: Letters from Hell, p. 199). Hadi leo barua 300 kutoka siku zile zinahifadhiwa katika kumbukumbu ya Corporation of London Records Office (Evans and Skinner, Jack the Ripper: Letters from Hell, p. 149).
  10. Begg, Jack the Ripper: The Definitive History, p. 165; Evans and Skinner, Jack the Ripper: Letters from Hell, p. 105; Rumbelow, pp. 105–116
  11. Hizi ni zaidi ya 200 zinazohifadhiwa katika kumbukumbu ya Public Record Office (Evans and Skinner, Jagazetick the Ripper: Letters from Hell, pp. 8, 180).
  12. Fido, pp. 6–10; Marriott, Trevor, pp. 219 ff.
  13. Cook, pp. 76–77; Evans and Rumbelow, p. 137; Evans and Skinner, Jack the Ripper: Letters from Hell, pp. 16–18; Woods and Baddeley, pp. 48–49
  14. Cook, pp. 78–79; Marriott, Trevor, p. 221
  15. Cook, pp. 77–78; Evans and Rumbelow, p. 140; Evans and Skinner, The Ultimate Jack the Ripper Sourcebook, p. 193; Fido, p. 7
  16. Cook, p. 87; Evans and Skinner, The Ultimate Jack the Ripper Sourcebook, p. 652
  17. Marriott, Trevor, pp. 219–222
  18. Cook, pp. 79–80; Fido, pp. 8–9; Marriott, Trevor, pp. 219–222; Rumbelow, p. 123
  19. e.g. Cullen, Tom (1965), Autumn of Terror, London: The Bodley Head, p. 103
  20. 20.0 20.1 Evans and Rumbelow, p. 170; Fido, pp. 78–80
  21. The Hype and the Press Speculation, London Metropolitan Police, retrieved 1 October 2014 
  22. Wolf, Gunter (2008). "A kidney from hell? A nephrological view of the Whitechapel murders in 1888". Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation vol. 23 pp. 3343–3349 (Subscription required)
  23. Cook, p. 146; Fido, p. 78
  24. Letter from Charles Warren to Godfrey Lushington, 10 October 1888, Metropolitan Police Archive MEPO 1/48, quoted in Cook, p. 78; Evans and Rumbelow, p. 140 and Evans and Skinner, Jack the Ripper: Letters from Hell, p. 43
  25. Quoted in Evans and Skinner, Jack the Ripper: Letters from Hell, pp. 41, 52 and Woods and Baddeley, p. 54
  26. Cook, pp. 94–95; Evans and Skinner, Jack the Ripper: Letters From Hell, pp. 45–48; Evans and Skinner, The Ultimate Jack the Ripper Sourcebook, pp. 624–633; Marriott, Trevor, pp. 219–222; Rumbelow, pp. 121–122
  27. Professor Francis E. Camps, August 1966, "More on Jack the Ripper", Crime and Detection, quoted in Evans and Skinner, Jack the Ripper: Letters from Hell, pp. 51–52

Kujisomea[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Paul Begg: Jack the Ripper. The Definitive History. Pearson Education, London 2003, ISBN 0-582-50631-X.
  • Paul Begg: Jack the Ripper. The Facts. Robson, London 2006, ISBN 1-86105-687-7.
  • Paul Begg, Martin Fido, Keith Skinner: The Complete Jack the Ripper A To Z. John Blake, London 2010, ISBN 978-0-586-07179-3.
  • Andrew Cook: Jack the Ripper. Amberley Publishing. Stroud 2009, ISBN 978-1-84868-327-3.
  • Patricia Cornwell: Wer war Jack the Ripper? Porträt eines Killers. Hoffmann und Campe, Hamburg 2002, ISBN 3-455-09365-5.
  • Lewis-Perry Curtis: Jack the Ripper & The London Press. Yale University Press, Yale 2001, ISBN 0-300-08872-8.
  • John J. Eddleston: Jack the Ripper. An Encyclopedia. Metro Books, London 2002, ISBN 1-84358-046-2.
  • Stewart P. Evans, Donald Rumbelow: Jack the Ripper. Scotland Yard Investigates. Sutton Publishing, Stroud 2006, ISBN 0-7509-4228-2.
  • Stewart P. Evans, Keith Skinner: The Ultimate Jack the Ripper Sourcebook. An Illustrated Encyclopedia. Constable and Robinson, London 2002, ISBN 1-84119-452-2.
  • Stewart P. Evans, Keith Skinner: Jack the Ripper. Letters from Hell. Sutton Publishing, Stroud 2001, ISBN 0-7509-2549-3.
  • Martin Fido: The Crimes, Detection and Death of Jack the Ripper. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London 1987, ISBN 0-297-79136-2.
  • Shirley Harrison: Das Tagebuch von Jack the Ripper. Die merkwürdigen Umstände der Entdeckung. Die Beweise der Echtheit. Bastei-Lübbe, Bergisch Gladbach 1994, ISBN 3-404-71500-4.
  • Karyo Magellan: By Ear and Eyes – The Whitechapel Murders, Jack the Ripper and the Murder of Mary Jane Kelly. Longshot, Derby 2005, ISBN 0-9550240-0-5.
  • Trevor Marriott: Jack the Ripper. The 21st Century Investigation. John Blake, London 2005, ISBN 1-84454-103-7.
  • Dennis Meikle: Jack the Ripper: The Murders and the Movies. Reynolds and Heam, Richmond upon Thames 2002, ISBN 1-903111-32-3.
  • Robin Odell: Ripperology. A Study of the World’s First Serial Killer and a Literary Phenomenon. Kent State University Press, Kent, Ohio 2006, ISBN 0-87338-861-5.
  • Hendrik Püstow, Thomas Schachner: Jack the Ripper. Anatomie einer Legende. Militzke, Leipzig 2006, ISBN 3-86189-753-9.
  • Miriam Rivett, Mark Whitehead: Jack the Ripper. Pocket Essentials, Harpenden 2006, ISBN 1-904048-69-2.
  • Donald Rumbelow: The Complete Jack the Ripper. Fully Revised and Updated. Penguin, London 2004, ISBN 0-14-017395-1.
  • Philip Sugden: The Complete History of Jack the Ripper. Carrol and Graf, London 2002, ISBN 0-7867-0276-1.
  • Judith Walkowitz: City of Dreadful Delight. Narratives of Sexual Danger in Late-Victorian London. Virago Press, London 2000, ISBN 0-226-87146-0.
  • Philippe R. Welté: Jack l'Éventreur le Secret de Mary Jane K. Alban, Paris 2006, ISBN 2-911751-33-7.
  • Alex Werner (Hrsg.): Jack the Ripper and the East End London. Chatto and Windus, London 2008, ISBN 978-0-7011-8247-2.
  • Paul Woods, Gavin Baddeley: Saucy Jack. The Elusive Ripper. Ian Allan Publishing, Hersham 2009, ISBN 978-0-7110-3410-5.