Fonetiki

Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru
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Fonetiki (kutoka Kiingereza "Phonetics") ni tawi la sayansi ya isimu. Inashughulikia uchunguzi wa sauti za lugha za binadamu, pamoja na utamkaji na usikiaji wake. Kwa ujumla, fonetiki ni tawi la isimu linalochunguza jinsi sauti zinavyozalishwa, zinavyosafirishwa na zinavyomfikia msikilizaji.

Etimolojia ya neno fonetiki imebeba dhana mbili: foni na etiki. Foni humaanisha sauti, ilihali etiki ni dhana pana kidogo.

Vitamkwa huandikwa kwa kutumia alfabeti ya kifonetiki ya kimataifa (au IPA, kifupi cha jina lake kwa Kiingereza, International Phonetic Alphabet).

Fonetiki inagawanyika katika:

  • fonetiki akustika
  • fonetiki maabara (au fonetiki majaribio)
  • fonetiki masikizi
  • fonetiki matamshi
  • fonetiki tibamatamshi

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Ya Kiswahili[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • TUKI 1990, "Kamusi Sanifu ya Isimu na Lugha", Chuo Kikuu cha Dar es Salaam
  • Massamba, David 2004, "Kamusi ya Isimu na Falsafa ya Lugha", Chuo Kikuu cha Dar es Salaam

Mengineyo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Abercrombie, D. (1967). Elements of General Phonetics. 
  • Catford, J. C. (2001). A Practical Introduction to Phonetics, 2nd, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-924635-1. 
  • Halle, Morris (1983). "On Distinctive Features and their articulatory implementation". Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 1 (1): 91 - 105.
  • International Phonetic Association (1999). Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. Cambridge University Press. 
  • (1976) Preliminaries to Speech Analysis: The Distinctive Features and their Correlates. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-60001-3. 
  • Jones, Daniel (1948). "The London school of phonetics". Zeitschrift für Phonetik 11 (3/4): 127 - 135. (Reprinted in (1973) Phonetics in Linguistics. Longman, 180–186. )
  • Kingston, John (2007). "The Phonetics-Phonology Interface", The Cambridge Handbook of Phonology. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-84879-2. 
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005). A Course in Phonetics, 5th, Thomson/Wadsworth. ISBN 1-413-00688-4. 
  • Ladefoged, Peter (1996). The Sounds of the World’s Languages. Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19815-6. 
  • (1973) Phonetics. Pelican, 16-17. ISBN 978-0140215601. 
  • O'Grady, William (2005). Contemporary Linguistics: An Introduction, 5th, Bedford/St. Martin's. ISBN 0-312-41936-8. 
  • Stearns, Peter (2001). World Civilizations, 3rd, New York: Longman. ISBN 0-321-04479-7. 
  • Trask, R.L. (1996). A Dictionary of Phonetics and Phonology. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-11261-3. 

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Globe of letters.svg Makala hii kuhusu mambo ya lugha bado ni mbegu.
Je, unajua kitu kuhusu Fonetiki kama historia yake, uenezi au maendeleo yake?
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Basi unaweza kuisaidia Wikipedia kwa kuihariri na kuongeza habari.