Nenda kwa yaliyomo

Fonetiki

Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru

Fonetiki (kutoka Kiingereza "Phonetics") ni tawi la sayansi ya isimu. Inashughulikia uchunguzi wa sauti za lugha za binadamu, pamoja na utamkaji na usikiaji wake. Kwa ujumla, fonetiki ni tawi la isimu linalochunguza jinsi sauti zinavyozalishwa, zinavyosafirishwa na zinavyomfikia msikilizaji.

Etimolojia ya neno fonetiki imebeba dhana mbili: foni na etiki. Foni humaanisha sauti, ilihali etiki ni dhana pana kidogo.

Vitamkwa huandikwa kwa kutumia alfabeti ya kifonetiki ya kimataifa (au kifupi cha jina lake kwa Kiingereza, International Phonetic Alphabet).

Fonetiki inagawanyika katika:

  • fonetiki akustika
  • fonetiki maabara (au fonetiki majaribio)
  • fonetiki masikizi
  • fonetiki matamshi
  • fonetiki tibamatamshi

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Ya Kiswahili[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • TUKI 1990, "Kamusi Sanifu ya Isimu na Lugha", Chuo Kikuu cha Dar es Salaam
  • Massamba, David 2004, "Kamusi ya Isimu na Falsafa ya Lugha", Chuo Kikuu cha Dar es Salaam

Mengineyo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Abercrombie, D. (1967). Elements of General Phonetics. Edinburgh. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  • Catford, J. C. (2001). A Practical Introduction to Phonetics (toleo la 2nd). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-924635-1. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)
  • Halle, Morris (1983). "On Distinctive Features and their articulatory implementation". Natural Language and Linguistic Theory. 1 (1): 91–105. {{cite journal}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)
  • International Phonetic Association (1999). Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. Cambridge University Press. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)
  • Jakobson, Roman; Fant, Gunnar; Halle, Morris (1976). Preliminaries to Speech Analysis: The Distinctive Features and their Correlates. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-60001-3.
  • Jones, Daniel (1948). "The London school of phonetics". Zeitschrift für Phonetik. 11 (3/4): 127–135. {{cite journal}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help) (Reprinted in Jones, W. E.; Laver, J., whr. (1973). Phonetics in Linguistics. Longman. ku. 180–186.)
  • Kingston, John (2007). "The Phonetics-Phonology Interface". Katika DeLacy, Paul (mhr.). The Cambridge Handbook of Phonology. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-84879-2. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005). A Course in Phonetics (toleo la 5th). Boston: Thomson/Wadsworth. ISBN 1-413-00688-4. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World’s Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19815-6.
  • O'Connor, J.D. (1973). Phonetics. Pelican. ku. 16–17. ISBN 978-0140215601. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)
  • O'Grady, William (2005). Contemporary Linguistics: An Introduction (toleo la 5th). Bedford/St. Martin's. ISBN 0-312-41936-8. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)
  • Stearns, Peter; Adas, Michael; Schwartz, Stuart; Gilbert, Marc Jason (2001). World Civilizations (toleo la 3rd). New York: Longman. ISBN 0-321-04479-7. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)
  • Trask, R.L. (1996). A Dictionary of Phonetics and Phonology. Abingdon: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-11261-3. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Makala hii kuhusu mambo ya lugha bado ni mbegu.
Je, unajua kitu kuhusu Fonetiki kama historia yake, uenezi au maendeleo yake?
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