Automation

Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru
Rukia: urambazaji, tafuta

Ukurasa kuhusu jimbo la Niger

Kuka Viwanda Robots zinatumiwa katika bakery kwa uzalishaji wa chakula

Automation ni matumizi ya mfumo wa kudhibiti (kama kudhibiti nambari, kudhibiti mantiki ya mpango, na mengine kingozi mitambo ya viwanda), katika Matamasha pia matumizi mengine ya teknolojia ya habari (kama vile teknolojia ya kompyuta-saidizi [CAD, CAM, CAx]), kudhibiti mitambo ya viwandani na michakato, ili kupunguza haja ya kuingilia kwa binadamu.[1] Katika wigo wa sekta ya viwanda, automation ni hatua zaidi mechanization. Wakati mechanization zinazotolewa na mashine operators binadamu kuwasaidia misuli na mahitaji ya kazi, inapunguza sana automatisering haja Sensory binadamu na mahitaji ya akili pia. Taratibu na mifumo na pia inaweza automatiska.

Automation plays kuongezeka jukumu muhimu katika uchumi wa dunia na uzoefu wa kila siku. Wahandisi bidii kuchanganya automatiska vifaa na hisabati na mashirika binafsi kujenga mifumo tata kwa haraka kupanua matumizi mbalimbali na shughuli za binadamu.

Majukumu mengi kwa binadamu katika michakato ya viwandani uongo sasa zaidi wigo wa automatisering. Muundo wa ngazi za binadamu kutambuliwa, lugha kutambuliwa, na uwezo wa uzalishaji wa lugha ni vizuri zaidi ya uwezo wa kisasa muwasho na mifumo ya kompyuta. Tasks wanaohitaji au subjective tathmini ya awali ya tata Sensory data, kama vile scents na size, vilevile high-level kazi kama kimkakati, sasa zinahitaji utaalamu binadamu. Katika matukio mengi, matumizi ya binadamu ni gharama nafuu zaidi kuliko muwasho mbinu hata pale ambapo kazi automatisering ya viwanda ni iwezekanavyo.

Specialiserade ngumu kompyuta, inajulikana kama mtawala mantiki programmable s (PLCs), ni mara nyingi hutumika synchronize mtiririko wa pembejeo kutoka (kimwili) sensor s na matukio na mtiririko wa matokeo ya actuators na matukio. Hii inasababisha kudhibitiwa vitendo halisi kwamba kibali a tight udhibiti wa karibu viwanda yoyote mchakato.

Binadamu-mashine interface s (HMI) au kompyuta interfaces binadamu (CHI), zamani inayojulikana kama mtu-mashine interfaces, ni kawaida walioajiriwa kuwasiliana na kompyuta PLCs na mengine, kama vile kuingia na ufuatiliaji joto au shinikizo kwa udhibiti automatiska zaidi au dharura . Service wafanyakazi ambao kufuatilia na kudhibiti interfaces hizi mara nyingi ni stationary inajulikana kama Wahandisi.[2]

Impact[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Automation imekuwa na athari mashuhuri katika anuwai inayoonekana sana viwanda zaidi ya viwanda. Mara-ubiquitous simu operator s wamekuwa badala kikubwa kwa switchboard s automatiska simu na kujibu mashine. Medical michakato ya msingi kama vile electrocardiography au uchunguzi katika maabara radiography na uchambuzi wa jeni binadamu, Sera, seli, na tishu mnabebwa nje katika kasi kubwa sana na usahihi na automatiska system. Automatiska mashine s teller imepungua haja kwa ziara ya benki ili kupata fedha na kutimiza transaktioner. Kwa ujumla, automatisering imekuwa kuwajibika kwa mabadiliko katika uchumi wa dunia kutoka agrarian kwa viwanda katika karne ya 19 na kutoka viwandani na huduma katika karne ya 20.[3]

Kuenea kwa athari za industriautomatisering huwafufua masuala ya kijamii, miongoni mwao madhara yake ajira. Kihistoria wasiwasi kuhusu madhara ya tarehe automatisering nyuma mwanzo wa mapinduzi ya viwanda, wakati harakati ya kijamii ya Kiingereza nguo mashine operators mapema 1800s anajulikana kama Luddites wamepinga dhidi Jacquard's automatiska Weaving looms [4] - mara nyingi kwa kuharibu kama nguo mashine - kwamba wao waliona kutishia ajira zao. Mwandishi mmoja alifanya zifuatazo kesi. Wakati automatisering ilianzisha mara ya kwanza, ni unasababishwa kuenea hofu. Ilikuwa walidhani kwamba katika makazi yao ya binadamu na computerized operator s system skulle kusababisha kali ajira.

Wakosoaji wa automatisering zinakubali kwamba ongezeko industriautomatisering husababisha kuongezeka kwa ajira; hii ilikuwa kubwa ya wasiwasi wakati wa miaka ya 1980. Hoja moja madai kwamba hii imetokea invisibly katika miaka ya karibuni, kama ukweli kwamba viwanda vingi ajira waliondoka Marekani mapema miaka ya 1990 wakati ilikuwa kompenserat kwa wakati mmoja na ongezeko kubwa katika IT ajira kwa wakati huo. Baadhi ya waandishi wanasema kuwa kinyume mara nyingi imekuwa kweli, na kwamba automatisering imesababisha juu ajira. Chini synpunkten, ya kumkomboa juu ya nguvukazi ina zaidi ya watu kuruhusiwa kuingia ujuzi zaidi usimamizi na vilevile specialiserade mshauri / mkandarasi ajira (kama cryptographer s), ambayo ni kawaida ya juu kulipa. Upande mmoja odd athari za mabadiliko haya ni kwamba "wahudumu kazi" ni katika mahitaji ya juu katika ulimwengu wa kwanza wengi mataifa, kwa sababu watu wachache zinapatikana kujaza kama ajira.

Katika mtazamo wa kwanza, automatisering wapate kuonekana devalue kazi kupitia badala yake pamoja na mashine ya chini-ghali, hata hivyo, athari za jumla ya nguvukazi yote inabakia kama hauelewi.[onesha uthibitisho] Leo automatisering ya nguvukazi ni advanced kabisa, na inaendelea kuongezeka mapema haraka zaidi kote duniani na ni juu ya milele encroaching ujuzi zaidi kazi, lakini katika kipindi hicho jumla ustawi na ubora wa maisha ya watu wengi katika ulimwengu (ambapo kisiasa bado muddied picha) wana kuboreshwa kwa kasi. Ni jukumu automatisering zimekuwa katika mabadiliko haya haijawahi alisoma vizuri.

Mwishoni mwa karne ya 20 mkazo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Hivi sasa, kwa makampuni ya viwanda, madhumuni ya automatisering ina flyttas över kutoka kuongeza tija na kupunguza gharama, kwa mapana masuala, kama vile kuongeza ubora na viwanda flexibilitet katika mchakato.

Mwelekeo wa zamani juu ya kutumia automatisering tu kuongeza tija na kupunguza gharama mara kuonekana kuwa mfupi wenye kuona, kwa sababu ni muhimu pia kutoa ujuzi nguvukazi ambao wanaweza kufanya matengenezo na kusimamia mitambo. Aidha, gharama za awali za automatisering walikuwa juu na mara nyingi hawakuweza kuwa zinalipwa kwa wakati kabisa tillverkningsprocesser mpya badala ya zamani. (Japan's "robot junkyards" walikuwa mara moja maarufu duniani katika sekta ya viwanda.)

Automation sasa ni mara nyingi hutumiwa hasa kuongeza ubora katika mchakato ya viwanda, ambapo automatisering inaweza kuongeza ubora betydligt. Kwa mfano, bilindustrin na lori piston s kutumika kuwa imewekwa ndani engines manually. Hii ni kwa haraka kuwa transitioned kwa mashine automatiska installation, kwa sababu kiwango cha kosa kwa mwongozo installment mara kuzunguka 1-1.5%, lakini umepungua kwa 0.00001% kwa automatisering. Madhara uendeshaji, kama vile mafuta raffinering, ya utengenezaji wa kemikali za viwandani, na kila aina ya metali kazi, walikuwa daima wanaogombea kwa automatisering mapema.

Mwingine mabadiliko makubwa katika automatisering ni kuongeza msisitizo flexibilitet na viwanda convertibility katika mchakato. Tillverkare zinazidi kudai uwezo rahisi kubadili kutoka viwanda Product A to viwanda Product B bila kuwa na uzalishaji upya kabisa Mpya s. Flexibilitet na kusambazwa lett michakato ya kuanzishwa automatiska Guided Vehicle s pamoja Mtindo Features Navigation.

Faida na hasara[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Faida kuu automatisering ni:

  • Kuondoa binadamu tedious operators katika kazi.
  • Kuondoa binadamu katika kazi kufanywa katika mazingira ya hatari (yaani, moto, nafasi, Volkano, vifaa vya nyuklia, chini ya maji, nk)
  • Kufanya kazi ambazo ni zaidi ya uwezo wa binadamu kama vile kuchukua mizigo mizito mno, vitu kubwa mno, pia moto au baridi mno dutu au matakwa ya kufanya mambo pia kufunga au polepole mno.
  • Uchumi kuboresha. Wakati mwingine na baadhi ya aina ya automatisering inadokeza inaboresha katika uchumi wa makampuni, jamii au wengi wa wanadamu. Kwa mfano, wakati wa biashara ambayo imewekeza katika teknolojia automatisering recovers uwekezaji wake; wakati jimbo au nchi huongeza mapato yake kutokana na automatisering kama Ujerumani au Ujapani katika karne ya 20 au wakati wanadamu wanaweza kutumia internet ambayo yanatumia satellite s na automatiska nyingine motorer.

Hasara kuu automatisering ni:

  • Teknolojia ya mipaka. Hali teknolojia ni kushindwa aŭtomate wote taka kazi.
  • Unpredictable gharama ya maendeleo. Utafiti na maendeleo automating gharama ya mchakato ni vigumu kutabiri kwa usahihi mbele. Tangu gharama hii inaweza kuwa na athari kubwa ya faida, ni automating iwezekanavyo ili kumaliza mchakato tu na kugundua kuwa hakuna faida ya kiuchumi katika kufanya hivyo.
  • Gharama za awali ni relativt juu. The automatisering wa bidhaa mpya required awali uwekezaji mkubwa katika kitengo ukilinganisha na gharama ya bidhaa, ingawa gharama ya automatisering ni kuenea katika bidhaa nyingi batches. The automatisering ya mmea required awali uwekezaji mkubwa mno, ingawa gharama hii ni kuenea katika kuwa bidhaa zinazozalishwa.

Utata sababu[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Ukosefu wa ajira. Ni kawaida inadokeza walidhani kwamba automatisering ajira kutokana na ukweli kwamba kazi ya binadamu ni kubadilishwa kwa sehemu au kabisa na mashine. Hata hivyo, ukosefu wa ajira unasababishwa na siasa ya kiuchumi ya utawala kama dismissing wafanyakazi badala ya kubadilisha majukumu yao. Tangu sera za kiuchumi kwa ujumla zaidi ya viwanda kumfukuza mimea ni watu, ina maana sikuhizi automatisering ajira. Katika matukio tofauti bila wafanyakazi, automatisering inadokeza zaidi muda bure, badala ya ajira kama ilivyo kwa mashine ya kuosha automatiska nyumbani. Automation haina ajira kuashiria wakati inafanya kazi bila unimaginable automatisering kama vile kuchunguza Mars na mgeni au wakati uchumi ni kutumika kikamilifu kwa teknolojia automatiserade kama kwa Telephone switchboard.
  • Mazingira Gharama ya automatisering kwa mazingira ni tofauti kutegemea teknolojia, bidhaa au injini automatiska. Kuna automatiska engines kwamba hutumia zaidi nishati ya rasilimali kutoka duniani ukilinganisha na injini uliopita na wale kwamba kufanya kinyume chake pia.
  • Binadamu replacement. Katika siku zijazo, kuna uwezekano kwamba Artificial akili inaweza kuchukua nafasi na kuboresha ubongo binadamu na robots wamekua si tu automatiska lakini kikamilifu kikamilifu autonoma kutoka binadamu (teknisk singularity)

Automation tools[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Aina mbalimbali za zana automatisering kuishi:

Automatiska viwanda[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Automatiska viwanda inahusu matumizi ya vitu automatisering kuzalisha katika kiwanda njia. Zaidi ya faida ya teknolojia automatisering ina ushawishi wake katika mchakato wa utengenezaji.

Faida kuu ya viwanda automatiska ni: konsekvensen na ubora zaidi, kupunguza kuongoza nyakati, enklare uzalishaji, kupunguza utunzaji, kuboresha kazi kati yake na kuongeza maadili ya wafanyakazi wakati utekelezaji mzuri wa automatisering ni gjort.

Tazama pia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

kumbukumbu[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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marejeleo ya ziada[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Jeremy Rifkin: Mwisho ya Kazi: Upungufu wa Global Ajira na Dawn ya Post-Soko Era
  • Ramin Ramtin: Capitalism na Automation - Mapinduzi katika Teknolojia na kibepari Breakdown. Pluto Press, London, Concord Misa 1991

Viunganishi vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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