Zama za Mwangaza

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Rukia: urambazaji, tafuta
Kama unajua kitu, ukisambaze. Kama kuna kitu ambacho hukijui, anzisha utafiti.
— Kutoka toleo la mwaka 1772 la Encyclopédie; Ukweli, juu katikati, ukizungukwa na mwangaza na ukionyeshwa wazi na falsafa na akili (kulia).

Zama za Mwangaza (au Falsafa ya mwangaza au Mwangaza au Wakati wa akili) ni jina la vuguvugu la kiutamaduni hasa katika karne ya 18 barani Ulaya.

Kituo chake kikuu kilikuwa nchini Ufaransa kikiongozwa na wanafalsafa wawili ambao ni Voltaire na Denis Diderot. Huyo alieneza azimio la mwangaza kwa kutumia mfululizo wa Encyclopédie, kitabu kikubwa cha kwanza cha kumbukumbu.

Azimio muhimu zaidi la mwangaza lilikuwa ni kuamini watu kwa sababu. Watu wote wana uwezo wa kujifikiria. Kwa hiyo, mtu hapaswi kuamini vitu kwa nguvu ya kimamlaka. Watu hawatakiwi kuamini kinachofundishwa na Kanisa wala kile anachofundisha mchungaji.

Azimio lingine muhimu ni kwamba jamii imeendelea vyema kwamba wanachama wake wote wana vyeo sawa tu, hamna ubaguzi, wanashirikiana sawa tu katika usanifu.

Historia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Tapo hilo la falsafa lilianza mwishoni mwa karne ya 17 na kuenea katika karne ya 18 katika Ulaya nzima na hatimaye Marekani likisisitiza akili na nafsi ya mtu kuliko mapokeo.[1]

Lengo lilikuwa kurekebisha jamii kwa kufuata uelewa wa akili, hasa kupitia mbinu za sayansi, si desturi na mafundisho ya imani, hasa ya Kanisa Katoliki.

Ilifanya wengi wapate wasiwasi kuhusu dini na wazingatie zaidi sayansi,[2] ikiathiri historia yote iliyofuata hata upande wa siasa.

Kati ya watu walioisambaza, muhimu zaidi ni wanafalsafa Baruch Spinoza (16321677), John Locke (16321704), Pierre Bayle (16471706), Voltaire (16941778) na nwanafizikia Isaac Newton (16431727).[3]

Mara nyingi watawala waliunga mkono watu kama hao wakajaribu kutekeleza maelekezo yao kwa serikali.

Baada ya mwaka 1800 watu wengi walianza kushtukia matokeo yake (hasa Mapinduzi ya Kifaransa) na kuelekea upande mwingine, ule wa hisia.[4]

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. "enlightenment". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press, n.d. Web. 19 September 2013.
  2. Kors, Alan Charles. Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2003. Print.
  3. Sootin, Harry. "Isaac Newton." New York, Messner(1955).
  4. Casey, Christopher (October 30, 2008). "Grecian Grandeurs and the Rude Wasting of Old Time": Britain, the Elgin Marbles, and Post-Revolutionary Hellenism. Foundations. Volume III, Number 1. Iliwekwa mnamo 2009-06-25.

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Ya jumla[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Becker, Carl L. The Heavenly City of the Eighteenth-Century Philosophers. (1932)
  • Bronner, Stephen. The Great Divide: The Enlightenment and its Critics
  • Burns, William. Science in the Enlightenment: An Encyclopædia (2003) 353pp
  • Chisick, Harvey. Historical Dictionary of the Enlightenment. 2005. 512 pp
  • Delon, Michel. Encyclopædia of the Enlightenment (2001) 1480pp
  • Dupre, Louis. The Enlightenment & the Intellectual Foundations of Modern Culture 2004
  • Gay, Peter. The Enlightenment: The Rise of Modern Paganism (1966, 2nd ed. 1995), 952 pp; excerpt and text search vol 1; The Enlightenment: The Science of Freedom, (1969 2nd ed. 1995), a highly influential study excerpt and text search vol 2;
  • Greensides F, Hyland P, Gomez O (ed.). The Enlightenment (2002)
  • Fitzpatrick, Martin et al., eds. The Enlightenment World. (2004). 714pp; 39 essays by scholars online edition
  • Hazard, Paul. European thought in the 18th century: From Montesquieu to Lessing (1965)
  • Humphreys, Kenneth. Jesus never existed (2005) Welcome to the enlightenment
  • Himmelfarb, Gertrude. The Roads to Modernity: The British, French, and American Enlightenments (2004) excerpt and text search
  • Israel, Jonathan. Democratic Enlightenment: Philosophy, Revolution, and Human Rights, 1750–1790 (2011), 1152pp; intellectual history focused on radicalism
  • Jacob, Margaret Enlightenment: A Brief History with Documents 2000
  • Kors, Alan Charles. Encyclopædia of the Enlightenment (4 vol. 1990; 2nd ed. 2003), 1984pp excerpt and text search; also complete text online at www.oxfordreference.com
  • Munck, Thomas. Enlightenment: A Comparative Social History, 1721–1794 England. (1994)
  • Outram, Dorinda. The Enlightenment(1995) 157pp excerpt and text search
  • Outram, Dorinda. Panorama of the Enlightenment (2006), emphasis on Germany; heavily illustrated
  • Porter, Roy (2001), The Enlightenment (2nd ed.), ISBN 9780333945056
      , http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=z6C9zlVo7cAC&printsec=frontcover, retrieved 28 Jun 2012 
  • Reill, Peter Hanns, and Wilson, Ellen Judy. Encyclopædia of the Enlightenment. (2nd ed. 2004). 670 pp.
  • Yolton, John W. et al. The Blackwell Companion to the Enlightenment. 1992. 581 pp.

Ya dhati zaidi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Aldridge, A. Owen (ed.). The Ibero-American Enlightenment (1971).
  • Andrew, Donna T. "Popular Culture and Public Debate: London 1780". The Historical Journal, Vol. 39, No. 2. (June 1996), pp 405–423. in JSTOR
  • Brewer, Daniel. The Enlightenment Past: reconstructing 18th-century French thought. (2008).
  • Broadie, Alexander. The Scottish Enlightenment: The Historical Age of the Historical Nation (2007)
  • Broadie, Alexander. The Cambridge Companion to the Scottish Enlightenment (2003) excerpt and text search
  • Bronner, Stephen. Interpreting the Enlightenment: Metaphysics, Critique, and Politics, 2004
  • Brown, Stuart, ed. British Philosophy in the Age of Enlightenment (2002)
  • Buchan, James. Crowded with Genius: The Scottish Enlightenment: Edinburgh's Moment of the Mind (2004) excerpt and text search
  • Campbell, R.S. and Skinner, A.S., (eds.) The Origins and Nature of the Scottish Enlightenment, Edinburgh, 1982
  • Cassirer, Ernst. The Philosophy of the Enlightenment. 1955. a highly influential study by a neoKantian philosopher excerpt and text search
  • Chartier, Roger. The Cultural Origins of the French Revolution. Translated by Lydia G. Cochrane. Duke University Press, 1991.
  • Cowan, Brian, The Social Life of Coffee: The Emergence of the British Coffeehouse. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005
  • Darnton, Robert. The Literary Underground of the Old Regime. (1982).
  • Edelstein, Dan. The Enlightenment: A Genealogy (University of Chicago Press; 2010) 209 pages
  • Golinski, Jan. "Science in the Enlightenment, Revisited," History of Science (2011) 49#2 pp 217–231
  • Goodman, Dena. The Republic of Letters: A Cultural History of the French Enlightenment. (1994).
  • Hesse, Carla. The Other Enlightenment: How French Women Became Modern. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001.
  • Hankins, Thomas L. Science and the Enlightenment (1985).
  • Israel, Jonathan I. Enlightenment Contested: Philosophy, Modernity, and the Emancipation of Man 1670–1752 (2008)
  • Israel, Jonathan. Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity, 1650–1750. (2001).
  • Israel, Jonathan. A Revolution of the Mind - Radical Enlightenment and the Intellectual Origins of Modern Democracy. (2009).
  • May, Henry F. The Enlightenment in America. 1976. 419 pp.
  • Melton, James Van Horn. The Rise of the Public in Enlightenment Europe. (2001).
  • Porter, Roy. The Creation of the Modern World: The Untold Story of the British Enlightenment. 2000. 608 pp. excerpt and text search
  • Redkop, Benjamin. The Enlightenment and Community, 1999
  • Reid-Maroney, Nina. Philadelphia's Enlightenment, 1740–1800: Kingdom of Christ, Empire of Reason. 2001. 199 pp.
  • Roche, Daniel. France in the Enlightenment. (1998).
  • Sorkin, David. The Religious Enlightenment: Protestants, Jews, and Catholics from London to Vienna (2008)
  • Staloff, Darren. Hamilton, Adams, Jefferson: The Politics of Enlightenment and the American Founding. 2005. 419 pp. excerpt and text search
  • Till, Nicholas. Mozart and the Enlightenment: Truth, Virtue, and Beauty in Mozart's Operas. 1993. 384 pp.
  • Tunstall, Kate E. Blindness and Enlightenment. An Essay. With a new translation of Diderot's Letter on the Blind (Continuum, 2011)
  • Venturi, Franco. Utopia and Reform in the Enlightenment. George Macaulay Trevelyan Lecture, (1971)

Vyanzo vikuu[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Broadie, Alexander, ed. The Scottish Enlightenment: An Anthology (2001) excerpt and text search
  • Diderot, Denis. Rameau's Nephew and First Satire.' (2008).
  • Diderot, Denis. "Letter on the Blind" in Tunstall, Kate E. Blindness and Enlightenment. An Essay. With a new translation of Diderot's Letter on the Blind (Continuum, 2011)
  • Diderot, Denis. The Encyclopédie of Diderot and D'Alembert: Selected Articles (1969) excerpt and text search
  • Gomez, Olga, et al. eds. The Enlightenment: A Sourcebook and Reader (2001) excerpt and text search
  • Kramnick, Issac, ed. The Portable Enlightenment Reader (1995) excerpt and text search
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