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Zeila

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Maghofu ya kihistoria, Zeila
Zeila wakati wa usiku

Zeila (kwa Kisomali: Saylac‎, kwa Kiarabu زيلع zayla) ni mji wa bandari wa kihistoria katika mkoa wa magharibi wa Awdal wa Somaliland. [1] Katika Karne za Kati, msafiri Myahudi Benjamini wa Tudela alitambua Zeila (au Hawilah) na eneo la Kibiblia la Havila. [2] Wasomi wengi wa kisasa wanadhani kwamba Zeila ni kati ya miji iliyotajwa katika kitabu cha mwongozo wa biashara kwenye Bahari ya Shamu iliyotungwa kwenye karne ya 2 BK na kuitwa Periplus ya Bahari ya Erythraea. [3] [4]

Mji huo uliendelea kuwa kitovu cha awali cha Uislamu. Tangu karne ya 9, Zeila ilikuwa mji mkuu wa Ufalme wa Adal na Usultani wa Ifat katika karne ya 13; na pia mji mkuu wa dola mrithi wake Usultani wa Adal. Wakati wa karne ya 16 iliona kipindi cha ustawi.

Baadaye mji ulikuwa chini ya mamlaka ya Milki ya Osmani na tangu karne ya 18 chini ya Uingereza.

Hadi hivi majuzi Zeila ilikuwa imezungukwa na ukuta mkubwa wenye milango mitano: Bab al Sahil na Bab al-jadd upande wa Kaskazini, Bab Abdulqadir upande wa Mashariki, Bab al-Sahil upande wa magharibi na Bab Ashurbura upande wa kusini. [5]

Zeila iko katika eneo la jadi la ukoo wa kale wa Dir ya Somalia. Mji wa Zeila na wilaya ya Zeila inakaliwa na Wagadabuursi na Waissa, ambao ni koo ndogo za familia ya Dir. [6] [7] [8] [9]

Mazingira ya Zeila ni jangwa. Baharini kuna visiwa vidogo. Mji ulikuwa na vipindi vya ustawi kutokana na biashara yake lakini idadi ya watu ilibaki ndogo kutokana na uhaba wa maji baridi.

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. "Somalia City & Town Population" (PDF). FAO. Ilihifadhiwa kwenye nyaraka kutoka chanzo (PDF) mnamo 11 Februari 2015. Iliwekwa mnamo 20 Oktoba 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  2. François-Xavier Fauvelle-Aymar, "Desperately Seeking the Jewish Kingdom of Ethiopia: Benjamin of Tudela and the Horn of Africa (Twelfth Century)", Speculum, 88.2 (2013): 383–404.
  3. G. W. B. Huntingford (ed.), The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, by an Unknown Author: With Some Extracts from Agatharkhides ‘On the Erythraean Sea’ (Ashgate, 1980), p. 90.
  4. Lionel Casson (ed.), The Periplus Maris Erythraei: Text with Introduction, Translation and Commentary (Princeton University Press, 1989), pp. 116–17. Avalites may be Assab or a village named Abalit near Obock.
  5. Historical Dictionary of Somalia by Mohamed Haji Mukhtar page 268
  6. Futūḥ al-Ḥabasha. (n.d.). Christian-Muslim Relations 1500 – 1900. doi:10.1163/2451-9537_cmrii_com_26077
  7. Glawion, Tim (2020-01-30). The Security Arena in Africa: Local Order-Making in the Central African Republic, Somaliland, and South Sudan (kwa Kiingereza). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-108-65983-3. Three distinct circles can be distinguished based on the way the security arena is composed in and around Zeila: first, Zeila town, the administrative centre, which is home to many government institutions and where the mostly ethnic Gadabuursi/Samaron inhabitants engage in trading or government service activities; second, Tokhoshi, an artisanal salt mining area eight kilometres west of Zeila, where a mixture of clan and state institutions provide security and two large ethnic groups (Ciise and Gadabuursi/Samaron) live alongside one another; third the southern rural areas, which are almost universally inhabited by the Ciise clan, with its long, rigid culture of self-rule.
  8. Reclus, Elisée (1886). The Earth and its Inhabitants The Universal Geography Vol. X. North-east Africa (PDF) (kwa Kiingereza). J.S. Virtue & Co, Limited, 294 City Road. Two routes, often blocked by the inroads of plundering hordes, lead from Harrar to Zeila. One crosses a ridge to the north of the town, thence redescending into the basin of the Awash by the Galdessa Pass and valley, and from this point running towards the sea through Issa territory, which is crossed by a chain of trachytic rocks trending southwards. The other and more direct but more rugged route ascends north-eastwards towards the Darmi Pass, crossing the country of the Gadibursis or Gudabursis. The town of Zeila lies south of a small archipelago of islets and reefs on a point of the coast where it is hemmed in by the Gadibursi tribe. It has two ports, one frequented by boats but impracticable for ships, whilst the other, not far south of the town, although very narrow, is from 26 to 33 feet deep, and affords safe shelter to large craft.
  9. UN (1999) Somaliland: Update to SML26165.E of 14 February 1997 on the situation in Zeila, including who is controlling it, whether there is fighting in the area, and whether refugees are returning. "The Gadabuursi clan dominates Awdal region. As a result, regional politics in Awdal is almost synonymous with Gadabuursi internal clan affairs." p. 5.

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