Uchale

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Thomas Heazle Parke akichanjiana na Mwafrika

Uchale (pia undugu wa uchale au undugu wa kuchanjiana) ni undugu unaofanywa kati ya watu wawili ambao hawana undugu wa kuzaliwa kwa kuchanjiana damu.

Mviga wa uchale na sababu zake hutofautiana kulingana na mila na tamaduni za watu wanaofanya undugu namna hiyo[1][2].

Leo, uchale hufanyika katika magenge[3] na baadhi ya vikundi vya uhamasishaji[2].

Kuchanjiana damu kunaweza kueneza maradhi[4].

Utamaduni[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Katika jamii za Waafrika ambako uchale ulifanyika, ulitumika kama mkataba[5][6][7] au njia ya kuanzisha uhusiano[8] kati ya wanaume wawili au jamii[6]. Undugu wa aina hii haungevunjika ovyo. Kutoheshimu ndugu wa uchale, kuliaminika kuwa na adhabu ya kiungu[1].

Sababu za kufanya undugu huo zilihusiana wanaume kutaka kulinda mali na kutaka kuhakikisha heshima baina ya ndugu. Kwa mfano, katika jamii za watu wa Kigezi, Uganda, wanaume waliingia katika uchale ili waweze kupitia njia za biashara kwa usalama[7]. Machifu wa jamii za Watio na Wabhobangi walichanjiana ili washirikiane katika raslimali za Mto Kongo[6]. Katika jamii ya Wakikuyu, watu ambao hawakuwa Wakikuyu hawakukubalika hadi wakati mviga wa uchale ufanyike[9][8].

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. 1.0 1.1 White, Luise (1994/07). "Blood brotherhood revisited: kinship, relationship, and the body in East and Central Africa" (in en). Africa 64 (3): 359–372. doi:10.2307/1160786 . ISSN 1750-0184 . https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/africa/article/blood-brotherhood-revisited-kinship-relationship-and-the-body-in-east-and-central-africa/5A27F7182C5DFEC0222E1404667204F9.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Donovan, Jack (2012-12). Blood-Brotherhood: And Other Rites of Male Alliance (in en). Dissonant Hum. ISBN 9780985452322. 
  3. "Aryan Brotherhood", Southern Poverty Law Center (in English), retrieved 2018-10-06 
  4. Isik, Memet; Set, Turan; Sattar Khan, Abdul; Avsar, Ummu Zeynep; Cansever, Zeliha; Acemoglu, Hamit (2013-6). "Prevalence of Blood Brotherhood among High School Students in Erzurum and the Effect of Peer-led Education on this Practice". The Eurasian Journal of Medicine 45 (2): 83–87. doi:10.5152/eajm.2013.16 . ISSN 1308-8734 . PMC PMC4261492 . PMID 25610258 . https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4261492/.
  5. Doyle, Cathal M. (2014-11-20). Indigenous Peoples, Title to Territory, Rights and Resources: The Transformative Role of Free Prior and Informed Consent (in en). Routledge, 17. ISBN 9781317703181. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Sundkler, Bengt (2000-05-04). A History of the Church in Africa (in en). Cambridge University Press, 278. ISBN 9780521583428. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Carswell, Grace (2007). Cultivating Success in Uganda: Kigezi Farmers & Colonial Policies (in en). James Currey, 38. ISBN 9781847016010. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 Hutchinson, Henry Neville (1985). The Living Races of Mankind (in en). Mittal Publications, 344. 
  9. Bulpett, C. W. L. (2012-11-12). King of the Wa-Kikuyu: A True Story of Travel and Adventure in Africa (in en). Routledge, 97-99. ISBN 9781136249051. 
Blank template.svg Makala hii kuhusu mambo ya utamaduni bado ni mbegu.
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