Ramses II

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Sanamu yake huko Abu Simbel.
Ramses II akiwa mtoto (Cairo Museum).
Ramses II katika mapigano ya Khadesh.

Ramses II au Rameses Mkuu(1303 hivi - Julai au Agosti 1213 KK)[1] alikuwa Farao wa Misri miaka 12791213 KK, wa tatu katika Nasaba ya 19 ya Misri ya Kale.

Mara nyingi anasifiwa kama Farao bora. Waandamizi wake na Wamisri wa baadaye walimuita "Mzee Mkuu".

Ramses II aliongoza majeshi yake mara kadhaa hadi Asia, ili kusisitiza himaya ya Misri juu ya Kanaani, lakini pia kusini hadi Nubia.

Tena alishughulikia sana ujenzi wa miji n.k. Pia kwa sababu hiyo, wengi wanaona ndiye Farao aliyepambana na Musa kadiri ya Biblia.

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. "Ramses". Webster's New World College Dictionary. Wiley Publishing. 2004. http://www.yourdictionary.com/Ramses.

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Balout, L., Roubet, C. and Desroches-Noblecourt, C. (1985). La Momie de Ramsès II: Contribution Scientifique à l'Égyptologie. 
  • Bietak, Manfred (1995). Avaris: Capital of the Hyksos - Recent Excavations. London: British Museum Press. 
  • von Beckerath, Jürgen (1997). Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten. Mainz: Philipp von Zabern. 
  • Brand, Peter J. (2000). The Monuments of Seti I: Epigraphic, Historical and Art Historical Analysis. NV Leiden: Brill. 
  • Brier, Bob (1998). The Encyclopedia of Mummies. Checkmark Books. 
  • Clayton, Peter (1994). Chronology of the Pharaohs. Thames & Hudson. 
  • Dodson, Aidan (2004). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 
  • Grajetzki, Wolfram (2005). Ancient Egyptian Queens– a hieroglyphic dictionary. London: Golden House Publications. 
  • Grimal, Nicolas (1992). A History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford: Blackwell. 
  • Kitchen, Kenneth (1983). Pharaoh Triumphant: The Life and Times of Ramesses II, King of Egypt. London: Aris & Phillips. 
  • Kitchen, Kenneth Anderson (2003). On the Reliability of the Old Testament. Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. ISBN 0-8028-4960-1. 
  • Kitchen, Kenneth Anderson (1996). Ramesside Inscriptions Translated and Annotated: Translations. Volume 2: Ramesses II; Royal Inscriptions. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. ISBN 0-631-18427-9.  Translations and (in the 1999 volume below) notes on all contemporary royal inscriptions naming the king.
  • Kitchen, Kenneth Anderson (1999). Ramesside Inscriptions Translated and Annotated: Notes and Comments. Volume 2: Ramesses II; Royal Inscriptions. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. 
  • Kuhrt, Amelie (1995). The Ancient Near East c.3000–330 BC Vol. 1. London: Routledge. 
  • O'Connor, David (1998). Amenhotep III: Perspectives on his reign. University of Michigan Press. 
  • Putnam, James (1990). An introduction to Egyptology. 
  • Rice, Michael (1999). Who's Who in Ancient Egypt. Routledge. 
  • (1967) The Beit el-Wali Temple of Ramesses II. 
  • RPO Editors. Percy Bysshe Shelley: Ozymandias. University of Toronto Department of English. University of Toronto Libraries, University of Toronto Press. Iliwekwa mnamo 2006-09-18.
  • Siliotti, Alberto (1994). Egypt: temples, people, gods. 
  • Skliar, Ania (2005). Grosse kulturen der welt-Ägypten. 
  • Stieglitz, Robert R. (1991). "The City of Amurru". Journal of Near Eastern Studies (The University of Chicago Press) 50.1.
  • Tyldesley, Joyce (2000). Ramesses: Egypt's Greatest Pharaoh. London: Viking/Penguin Books. 
  • Westendorf, Wolfhart (1969). Das alte Ägypten (in de). 
  • Can. Assoc. Radiol. J. 2004 Oct;55(4):211–7, PMID 15362343
  • The Epigraphic Survey, Reliefs and Inscriptions at Karnak III: The Bubastite Portal, Oriental Institute Publications, vol. 74 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1954
  • Drews 1995, p. 54: "Already in the 1840s Egyptologists had debated the identity of the "northerners, coming from all lands," who assisted the Libyan King Meryre in his attack upon Merneptah. Some scholars believed that Meryre's auxiliaries were merely his neighbors on the Libyan coast, while others identified them as Indo-Europeans from north of the Caucasus. It was one of Maspero's most illustrious predecessors, Emmanuel de Rougé, who proposed that the names reflected the lands of the northern Mediterranean: the Lukka, Ekwesh, Tursha, Shekelesh, and Shardana were men from Lydia, Achaea, Tyrsenia (western Italy), Sicily, and Sardinia." De Rougé and others regarded Meryre's auxiliaries-these "peoples de la mer Méditerranée"- as mercenary bands, since the Sardinians, at least, were known to have served as mercenaries already in the early years of Ramesses the Great. Thus the only "migration" that the Karnak Inscription seemed to suggest was an attempted encroachment by Libyans upon neighboring territory."

^ Jump up to: a b c d e Drews 1995, p. 49.

  • Gale, N.H. 2011. ‘Source of the Lead Metal used to make a Repair Clamp on a Nuragic Vase recently excavated at Pyla-Kokkinokremos on Cyprus'. In V. Karageorghis and O. Kouka (eds.), On Cooking Pots, Drinking Cups, Loomweights and Ethnicity in Bronze Age Cyprus and Neighbouring Regions, Nicosia.
  • O'Connor & Cline 2003, p. 112-113.

Marejeo mengine[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Hasel, Michael G. 1994. “Israel in the Merneptah Stela," Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 296, pp. 45–61.
  • Hasel, Michael G. 1998. Domination and Resistance: Egyptian Military Activity in the Southern Levant, 1300–1185 BC. Probleme der Ägyptologie 11. Leiden: Brill Publishers. ISBN 90-04-10984-6
  • Hasel, Michael G. 2003. "Merenptah's Inscription and Reliefs and the Origin of Israel" in Beth Alpert Nakhai (ed.), The Near East in the Southwest: Essays in Honor of William G. Dever, pp. 19–44. Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research 58. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research. ISBN 0-89757-065-0
  • Hasel, Michael G. 2004. "The Structure of the Final Hymnic-Poetic Unit on the Merenptah Stela." Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 116:75–81.
  • James, T. G. H. 2000. Ramesses II. New York: Friedman/Fairfax Publishers. A large-format volume by the former Keeper of Egyptian Antiquities at the British Museum, filled with colour illustrations of buildings, art, etc. related to Ramesses II

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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