Philippa Schuyler

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Philippa Duke Schuyler
Amezaliwa Philippa
2 August 1931
New York City
Amekufa 9 may 1967
Nchi Marekani
Majina mengine Philippa
Kazi yake mpiga kinanda, Mwandishi na mwanahabari

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Philipa Schuyler (1959)

Philippa Duke Schuyler (2 Agosti 19319 Mei 1967) alikuwa raia wa Marekani mpiga kinanda, mwandishi na mwanahabari. Binti wa mwanahabari Mweusi George Schuyler na mtu Mweupe Josephine Schuyler, raia wa Texas, Schuyler alikua mashuhuri sana miaka ya 1930 kutokana na ujuzi wake na akili yake .

Alisifiwa kama Ngao "Shirley Temple ya Wanegro wa Amerika,"[1] Schuyler alikuwa mpiga piano aliyejulikana Kwa kufanya maonyesho ya umma na matangazo ya redio akiwa na umri wa miaka minne. Alicheza nyimbo mbili za piano katika Maonyesho ya Ulimwengu ya New York akiwa na umri wa miaka nane. Schuyler alishinda mashindano mengi ya muziki kama vile New York Philharmonic ,Matamasha ya Vijana huko Carnegie Hall. Alikuwa mwanachama mchanga zaidi wa Chama cha Kitaifa cha Watunzi na Makondakta wa Amerika akiwa na umri wa miaka kumi na moja. Schuyler alikutana na ubaguzi wa rangi wakati alikua mkubwa, Alipata shida kukubaliana na mchanganyiko wake wa rangi kutoka kwa wazazi wake. Baadaye alikua mwandishi wa habari na aliuawa mnamo 1967 katika ajali ya helikopta huko Vietnam Kusini.

Maisha[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Philippa Duke Schuyler alizaliwa Harlem, New York mnamo Agosti 2, 1931. Alikuwa mtoto wa pekee wa George Schuyler, mwandishi maarufu wa insha na mwandishi wa habari, na mkewe Josephine Schuyler ,Raia wa Texan na mjukuu wa wamiliki wa watumwa.[1][2] Wazazi wake waliamini kwamba kuoana jamii ya Kiafrika na Kizungu kunaweza kusababisha jamii zote mbili kuzaa watoto watofauti. Walitetea pia kuwepo kwa ndoa ya watu wa mchanganyiko .

Kwa miaka mitatu kabla ya kuzaliwa kwa Schuyler, mama yake alikua akila chakula cha asili na kibichi , ili kujiandaa kuzaa mtoto "bora".[3] Babu yake na Schuyler aliamini zaidi kuwa fikra inaweza kukuzwa vizuri na lishe iliyo na vyakula vya Asili na Vibichi. Philippa alikulia katika nyumba ya baba yake New York City akila lishe ambayo inajumuisha karoti mbichi, mbaazi na viazi vikuu na nyama mbichi. Alipewa mgawo wa kila siku wa mafuta ya ini na vipande vya limao badala ya pipi. "Tunaposafiri," Bi Schuyler alisema, "Philippa na mimi tunashangaza wahudumu. Lazima tubishane na wahudumu wengi kabla ya kutuletea nyama mbichi. Nadhani ni kawaida sana kuona msichana mdogo akila nyama mbichi."[4],Mwandishi wa jarida la New York Herald Tribune " mnamo 1933 aliandika juu yake kama" Mtoto wa Negro. " Schuyler aliripotiwa kujua alfabeti akiwa na miezi kumi na tisa na aliweza kusoma na kuandika akiwa na umri wa miaka miwili. Alipofika umri wa miaka minne aliweza kucheza na Robert Schumann na Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , na alikuwa akiandika nyimbo zake.[5][6] Uwezo wake wa kufukiri(IQ) ulidhihirika akiwa na miaka sita na ilijulikana kuwa ni 185.[7]

Kazi ya muziki[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Mama wa Schuyler Aliza watoto wengi na alipenda kumwingiza motto wake schuyler katika kila mashindano ya muziki yanayowezekana.[5] Mnamo mwezi Juni mwaka 1936, Schuyler alishinda medali yake ya kwanza ya dhahabu akiwa na umri wa miaka minne kwenye mashindano ya kila mwaka yaliyodhaminiwa na Chama cha Kitaifa cha Walimu wa Piano, ambapo aliimba nyimbo kumi za asili.[8][9] Alishinda tuzo nane mfululizo kutoka New York Philharmonic Matamasha ya Vijana huko Carnegie Hall, kisha akazuiwa kushindana kwa sababu watoto wengine hawakua na uwezo wa kushinda dhidi yake.<refname=":7">Honey, Maureen (1999). Bitter Fruit: African American Women in World War II (in en). University of Missouri Press, 331. ISBN 978-0-8262-6079-6. </ref>[7] Alishinda pia medali ya dhahabu kutoka Ligi ya Elimu ya Muziki na kutoka Jiji la New York.[10]

Maneno ya piano ya Schuyler na matangazo ya redio yalivutia Watangazaji Wakubwa na waandishi wa habari New York. Meya Fiorello LaGuardia alikuwa mmoja wa wanaompendeza Schuyler na alimtembelea nyumbani kwa zaidi ya hafla moja. Alitangaza Juni 19, 1940 "Siku ya Philippa Duke Schuyler" katika Maonyesho ya Dunia ya 1939 New York, ambapo alifanya maonyesho mawili.[11][6] Akiwa na miaka tisa, Schuyler aliwekwa kwenye kichwa cha kitabu kilichojulikana kama " Evening With A Gifted Child ", wasifu ulioandikwa na mwandishi Joseph Mitchell, wa The New Yorker ", ambaye alisikia ya nyimbo zake za mapema. Alibainisha kwa kuwataja wazazi wake wote kwa majina yao ya kwanza.[12] Schuyler alimaliza darasa la nane akiwa na umri wa miaka kumi na moja na akiwa na umri wa miaka kumi na nne alikuwa ametunga albamu ya miziki 200 tofauti. Alikua mwanachama mchanga zaidi wa Chama cha Kitaifa cha Watunzi na Waandaaji wa Amerika mnamo 1942. Wakati alipofikia ujana, Schuyler alikuwa akifanya ziara kila wakati, huko Merika na ng'ambo. Katika miaka kumi na tano, Schuyler alihitimu kutoka Shule ya Upili ya Fathe Young S. J. Memorial, Schola Cantorum ya Shule ya Pius X ya Muziki wa Liturujia.[13] Alicheza pia na Philharmonic ya New York katika Uwanja wa Lewisohn.[5] Schuyler Aliendelea na masomo yake chuo cha Manhattanville College.[14]

Kazi ya uandishi wa habari[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Wakati ratiba zake za matamasha zilipungua mwanzoni mwa miaka ya 1960, Schuyler aliungana na baba yake George Schuyler katika uandishi wa habari akiwa na miaka thelathini. Aliongeza kipato chake kidogo kwa kuandika juu ya safari zake. Alichapisha zaidi ya nakala 100 za magazeti na majarida kimataifa, na alikuwa mmoja wa waandishi wachache weusi wa United Press International.[5] Schuyler alichapisha vitabu vinne visivyo vya uwongo: "Adventures in Black and White" (wasifu, 1960); Nani Aliua Kongo? Muhtasari wa vita vya Kongo na Ubelgiji kwa ajili ya uhuru, 1962); Jungle Saints kuhusu wamishonari Wakatoliki, 1963; na "Ufalme wa Ndoto" utafiti wa tafsiri ya ndoto ya kisayansi iliyoandikwa na mama yake, 1966).[15]

Maisha binafsi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Maisha binafsi ya Schuyler's ayakua ya furaha sana kwani mama yaki alikua akimuadhibu kila mara kwa kumchapa. Na akueza kuwa na marafiki enzi za utoto wake kutokana na kutoudhuria shule kila mara. [16] Schuyler alijenga Imani kwamba kutokana na rangi yake nyeusi inamfanya kubaguliwa"[17] Schuyler alikataa maadili mengi ya wazazi wake na kutazama ndoa yao ya kitabaka kama kosa.[5] She increasingly became a vocal feminist and made many attempts to pass herself off as a woman of Ibero-Americ an descent named Felipa Monterro y Schuyler.[11][5]

Ingawa Schuyler alijihusisha na mahusiano kadhaa, hakuwahi kuolewa. Mnamo mwaka wa 1965, alitoa ujauzito kitu kilichomuweka kwenye hatari baada ya uhusiano wa kimapenzi na mwanadiplomasia wa Ghana 'Georges Apedo-Amah', kwa sababu hakutaka kupata mtoto na mtu mweusi.[18] Schuyler wanted to marry an Aryan race man to boost her career and produce offspring she deemed ideal.[19]

Schuyler na baba yake walikuwa washirika wa John Birch Society.[15] In addition to her native English language, she spoke French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and German.[6][7]

Kifo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Mnamo mwaka 1966, Schuyler alisafiri kwenda South Vietnam kwa ajili ya maonyesho ya musiki na kundi la Vietnamese.[20] Alirudi mnamo Aprili 1967 kama mwandishi wa vitani wa William Loeb III Kiongozi wa Umoja wa Manchester ”na kutumika kama mmishonari mlei.[15] Mnamo Mei 9, 1967, Schuyler aliuawa katika ajali ya helikopta ya Jeshi la Merekani wakati wa misheni huko Da Nang ya kuwaondoa wavamizi wa Kivietinamu. Helikopta ilianguka uko Danang Bay.[21] Ingawa alinusurika kwenye ajali hiyo, Ilimsababisha asiweze kuogelea tena kutokana na mikono kuumia na kulimsababisha kuzama. Schuyler Alipanga kuondoka Vietnam siku chache badae, lakini akaongeza kukaa kwake ili kuleta Watoto wa Roma Mkatoliki ambapo kulikuwa na mvutano kati ya vikundi vya Wakatoliki na Wabudhi.[20] Waombolezaji 2,000 waliudhuria mazishi yake uko St. Patrick's Cathedral (Manhattan)| mjini New York City Mnamo Mai 18, 1967.[22]

Mahakama ya Uchunguzi Naval iligundua kuwa rubani alikuwa amekata mota ya ndege yake kwa makusudi na akashuka kwa kutumia parachuti hii ilikua ni kuwafundisha abiria wake ufahamu juu ya hatari za kuruka katika eneo la mapigano & ndash; mwishowe kupoteza udhibiti wa ndege.[onesha uthibitisho]

Mama yake Schuyler aliathiriwa sana na kifo cha mwanae na kuamua kujiua siku chache kabla ya maadhimisho ya pili ya kifo mwanae mnamo 1969.[3][23]

Vitabu[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Philippa Duke Schuyler, Adventures in Black and White, with Foreword by Deems Taylor, (New York: R. Speller, 1960)
  • Philippa Duke Schuyler, Who Killed the Congo?, (New York: Devin-Adair, 1962)[24]
  • Philippa Duke Schuyler, Jungle Saints: Africa's Heroic Catholic Missionaries, (Roma: Verlag Herder, 1963)
  • Philippa Duke Schuyler and Josephine Schuyler, Kingdom of Dreams, (New York: R. Speller, 1966)
  • Philippa Duke Schuyler, Good Men Die, (New York: Twin Circle, 1969)
  • Daniel McNeil, "Black devils, white saints & mixed-race femme fatales: Philippa Schuyler and the soundbites of the sixties", in Critical Arts: A Journal of South-North Cultural Studies, 2011.
  • Daniel McNeil, Sex and Race in the Black Atlantic (New York, Routledge, 2009). [1]
  • Joseph Mitchell, "Evening With a Gifted Child", in McSorley's Wonderful Saloon (New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce]], 1943)
  • Josephine Schuyler, Philippa, the Beautiful American: The Traveled History of a Troubadour, (paperback, n.p., 1969)
  • Kathryn Talalay, Composition In Black and White: The Tragic Saga of Harlem's Biracial Prodigy (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995)

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Schuessler, Jennifer. "Crossing the Lines Dividing the Races", The New York Times, September 3, 2013. (en-US) 
  2. Southall, Geneva Handy (2002). Blind Tom, the Black Pianist-composer (1849-1908): Continually Enslaved (in en). Scarecrow Press, x. ISBN 978-0-8108-4545-9. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Mom of Late Piano Genius Hangs Herself". Jet: 30. May 22, 1969. https://books.google.com/books?id=pDgDAAAAMBAJ&q=Philippa+Schuyler+jet&pg=PA30.
  4. Keyser, Catherine (2018). Artificial Color: Modern Food and Racial Fictions (in en). Oxford University Press, 66. ISBN 978-0-19-067313-0. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Rose, Phyllis. "Prodigy and Prejudice", The New York Times, December 10, 1995. (en-US) 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 "This Week In Black History". Jet: 16. August 2, 1979. https://books.google.com/books?id=T7sDAAAAMBAJ&q=August+2%2C+1931+Philippa+Duke+Schuyler&pg=PA16.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 "What Happens to Negro Child Geniuses". Jet: 45–46. December 11, 1952. https://books.google.com/books?id=f7sDAAAAMBAJ&q=philippa+schuyler+jet+caribbean&pg=PA44.
  8. "Music: Harlem Prodigy", Time, June 22, 1936. (en-US) 
  9. Hulbert, Ann (2018). Off the Charts: The Hidden Lives and Lessons of American Child Prodigies (in en). Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 132. ISBN 978-1-101-94730-2. 
  10. Hitilafu ya kutaja: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :7
  11. 11.0 11.1 Woodward, The late C. Vann (2001). The Strange Career of Jim Crow (in en). Oxford University Press, 80, 91, 223. ISBN 978-0-19-984023-6. 
  12. "Evening With a Gifted Child", The New Yorker, Conde Nast, 31 August 1940. 
  13. (1993) Black Women in America: An Historical Encyclopedia (in en). Carlson Pub., 1014. ISBN 978-0-926019-61-4. 
  14. Williams, Oscar Renal (2007). George S. Schuyler: Portrait of a Black Conservative (in en). Univ. of Tennessee Press, 136. ISBN 978-1-57233-581-3. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 Schuyler, Philippa Duke (1931–1967) | Encyclopedia.com.
  16. See, Carolyn. "So Young, So Gifted, So Sad", The Washington Post, November 24, 1995. 
  17. Wilkins, Carolyn Marie (2013). They Raised Me Up: A Black Single Mother and the Women Who Inspired Her (in en). University of Missouri Press, 76. ISBN 978-0-8262-7308-6. 
  18. Schuyler, George Samuel (2001). Rac(e)ing to the Right: Selected Essays of George S. Schuyler (in en). Univ. of Tennessee Press, xxix. ISBN 978-1-57233-118-1. 
  19. Kennedy, Randall (2004). Interracial Intimacies: Sex, Marriage, Identity, and Adoption (in en). Vintage, 364. ISBN 978-0-375-70264-8. 
  20. 20.0 20.1 "Vietnam Helicoptor Mishap: Concert Pianist Dies in Crash", Eugene Register-Guard, May 10, 1967, p. 2. 
  21. International, United Press. "Philippa Schuyler, Pianist, Dies In Crash of a Copter in Vietnam; U.S. Pianist Killed in Vietnam Crash", The New York Times, May 10, 1957. (en-US) 
  22. "2,000 at St. Patrick's Attend Requiem for Philippa Schuyler", The New York Times, May 19, 1967. (en-US) 
  23. (2002) Dimensions of Black Conservatism in the United States: Made in America (in en). Springer, 173. ISBN 9780230108158. 
  24. "Book Reviews". The Crisis: 364. June–July 1962. https://books.google.com/books?id=BVwEAAAAMBAJ&q=congo+philippa+schuyler&pg=PA364.

Viungo vya Nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]