Perikles

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Sanamu ya Perikles

Perikles (takriban 490 /495 KK429 KK, Kigiriki: Περικλῆς, linalomaanisha " kujaa utukufu ") alikuwa kiongozi mashuhuri wa kisiasa na wa kijeshi mjini Athens wakati wa Ugiriki ya Kale[1]. Alikuwa na ushawishi mkubwa katika Ugiriki ya karne ya 5 KK. Aliweka msingi wa mfumo wa demokrasia wa Athens na kipaumbele cha mji wake katika siasa ya Ugiriki.

Familia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Perikles alizaliwa katika familia mashuhuri wakati wa shambulio la kwanza la Uajemi dhidi ya Ugiriki na mapigano ya Marathoni. Alipokuwa mtoto, misingi ya utaratibu wa kidemokrasia iliwekwa katika mji wake. Aliona pia shambulio la pili la Uajemi na mapigano ya Salamis.

Kamanda wa kijeshi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Akiwa mtu mzima alijipatia sifa kwa kushiriki katika vita za Athens. Kuanzia mwaka 454 alichaguliwa na kusanyiko la raia wa Athens kuwa strategos yaani kamanda wa kijeshi mara ya kwanza. Perikles alisifiwa kwa uwezo wake wa kuhutubia kusanyiko la raia na pia kwa uwezo wake wa uongozi alichaguliwa kila mwaka tena kuwa kamanda kwa muda wa miaka 15.

Katika nafasi ya mkuu wa jeshi aliona umuhimu wa jeshi la majini kwa Athens; nguvu ya jeshi la majini ilitegemea hasa ushirikiano wa raia maskini waliofanya kazi ya kupiga kasia. Hapo Perikles alitafuta njia ya kupanusha uwezo wa raia maskini katika siasa.[2]

Kiongozi wa kisiasa bila cheo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Perikles mwenyewe hakushika vyeo vya kiserikali mbali na kamanda wa jeshi, maana wakati wake nafasi kwenye halmashauri kuu na vyeo vingine viliteuliwa kwa njia ya kura ya bahati na kwa mwaka mmoja au muda mfupi zaidi. Perikles alipelekea mapendekezo yake kwenye kusanyiko la raia wote ambako yalipokelewa; taratibu alizopendekeza zilikuwa pamoja na kulipa mishahara kwa vyenye vyeo kama wawakilishi katika halmashauri au majaji katika mahakama na taraibu hizo ziliruhusu pia raia maskini kutekeleza kazi za kisiasa bila kukosa mapato ya kila siku.

Mapendekezo mengine yalihusu majengo mengi ya mahekalu kwenye Akropolis ambayo ni mlima wa ngome mjini Athens. Perikles alitumia ushawishi wake kufanya Athens kuwa kitovu cha sanaa na elimu kwa Ugiriki yote. Wapinzani walijaribu kumkosoa na kumstaki kuwa anapoteza mali ya umma lakini kura za kusanyiko la raia zilimthibitisha mara kwa mara. Hali halisi alikuwa kiongozi wa Athens.[3]

Kujenga utawala wa Athens katika Ugiriki  [hariri | hariri chanzo]

Katika siasaya nje aliona uwezo mkubwa wa Sparta kwenye Rasi ya Peloponesi na jeshi lake la nchi kavu. Perikles aliamini kwamba Athens iliweza kushinda tu kwa jeshi la majini na kwa kuimarisha kuta za mji.[4] Hapo alilenga kuimarisha ushirikiano na miji mingine kwenye visiwa vidogo vya Bahari ya Aegean. Ushirikiano huo uliundwa kiasili kwa shabaha ya kujitetea dhidi ya mashambulio ya Uajemi lakini Perikles aliibadilisha kuwa milki ya Kiathens akidai utii wa washiriki na kuadhibu kila mji uliojaribu kujiondoa katika ushirikiano huo.[5]

Vita dhidi ya Sparta[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Kuanzia mwaka 431 KK vita ilianza baina ya Athens na Sparta. Perikles aliwahi kupinga kila mapatano na Sparta[6] na jeshi la Sparta lilivamia rasi ya Attika na kuharibu mashamba ya wananachi waliokusanyika nyuma ya kuta za mji. Perikles alikataa kuwashambulia Sparta kwenye nchi kavu, badala yake aliongoza jeshi la majini kupora kwani za Sparta.

Mwaka 429 KK mlipuko wa ugonjwa uliathiri Athens; wengi walikufa pamoja na Perikles mwenyewe. Vita iliendelea baadaye kwa miaka mingi hadi mwaka 404 KK. Hatimaye Athens ilishinwa baada ya Uajemi kuingia na kujiunga na Sparta.

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. Fornara-Samons, Athens from Cleisthenes to Pericles, 24–25
  2. L.J. Samons, What's Wrong with Democracy?, 65
  3. Plutarch, Pericles, XIV
  4. A.G. Platias-C. Koliopoulos, Thucydides on Strategy, 105
  5. H. Butler, The Story of Athens, 195
  6. A.G. Platias-C. Koliopoulos, Thucydides on Strategy, 100–03.

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