Mapacha

Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru
Rukia: urambazaji, tafuta
Marian na Vivian Brown, dada pacha wanaofanana.

Mapacha au ndugu pacha ni watu au wanyama waliozaliwa kwa pamoja kutoka tumboni mwa mama yao[1]. Kwa binadamu mara nyingi huwa wawili.

Kuna aina kuu mbili za mapacha ambao ni wale wanaofanana na wale wasiofanana. Tofauti ni kwamba wa kwanza wametokana na kijiyai kimoja kilichofikiwa na mbegu moja, kumbe wa pili wametokana na vijiyai viwili vilivyofikiwa na mbegu mbili. Hivyo wa kwanza wana jinsia ileile na kwa kawaida kabisa DNA ileile, kumbe wa pili DNA zao ni tofauti, ila zinafanana kiasi kama zile za ndugu wote wenye baba mmoja na mama mmoja[2].

Kimataifa aina ya kwanza inatokea mara 3 katika ujauzito wa wanawake 1,000[3].

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. MedicineNet > Definition of Twin Last Editorial Review: 19 June 2000
  2. Michael R. Cummings "Human Heredity Principles and issues" p. 104.
  3. April Holladay (2001-05-09). What triggers twinning?. WonderQuest. Iliwekwa mnamo 2007-03-22.

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Bacon, Kate. Twins in Society: Parents, Bodies, Space, and Talk (Palgrave Macmillan; 2010) 221 pages; explores the experience of child twins, adult twins, and parents of twins, with a focus on Britain.
  • Nieuwint, Aggie; Van Zalen-Sprock, Rieteke; Hummel, Pieter; Pals, Gerard; Van Vugt, John et al. (1999). "'Identical' twins with discordant karyotypes". Prenatal Diagnosis 19 (1): 72–6. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0223(199901)19:1<72::AID-PD465>3.0.CO;2-V
     . PMID 10073913
      .
  • "How frequent is heteropaternal superfecundation?". Acta geneticae medicae et gemellologiae 41 (1): 43–7. 1992. PMID 1488855
      .
  • Girela, Eloy; Lorente, Jose A.; Alvarez, J. Carlos; Rodrigo, Maria D.; Lorente, Miguel et al. (1997). "Indisputable double paternity in dizygous twins". Fertility and Sterility 67 (6): 1159–61. doi:10.1016/S0015-0282(97)81456-2
     . PMID 9176461
      .
     . PMID 17766488
      . http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17766488. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
     . PMC 1904168
     . PMID 17576931
      . http://www.pnas.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17576931. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  • Schein, Elyse (2007). Identical Strangers: A Memoir of Twins Separated and Reunited. New York: Random House. ISBN 1-4000-6496-1. OCLC 123390922. 
  • Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2009 May 15;151C(2):136-41. Not really identical: epigenetic differences in monozygotic twins and implications for twin studies in psychiatry. Haque FN, Gottesman II, Wong AH.
Morpho didius Male Dos MHNT.jpg Makala hii kuhusu mambo ya biolojia bado ni mbegu.
Je, unajua kitu kuhusu Mapacha kama historia yake au mahusiano yake na mada nyingine?
Labda unaona habari katika Wikipedia ya Kiingereza au lugha nyingine zinazofaa kutafsiriwa?
Basi unaweza kuisaidia Wikipedia kwa kuihariri na kuongeza habari.