Karolo Nyundo

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Karolo Nyundo (kwa Kifaransa: Charles Martel; 688 hivi[2]22 Oktoba 741) alikuwa waziri mkuu na jemadari[3] wa ufalme wa Wafaranki na alitawala tangu mwaka 718 hadi kifo chake.[4][5][6]

Mtoto wa Pepin wa Herstal na Alpaida[7], akawa baba wa Pepin Mfupi na babu wa Karolo Mkuu walioendeleza juhudi zake hadi kuunda upya Dola la Roma Magharibi[8].

Ni maarufu hasa kwa ushindi wake katika mapigano ya Tours na Poitiers tarehe 10 Oktoba 732 dhidi ya Waarabu waliovamia Ufaransa.

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. This sculpture was located in the Palace of Versailles. By Debaye, pere, sculpted marble, 1839, first displayed at the Salon in 1839. Height 2.09 m. Soulié (1855), op. cit.
  2. Paul Fouracre, The Age of Charles Martel, (Routledge, 2000), ix.
  3. (1996) Late Merovingian France : history and hagiography, 640-720, Fouracre, Paul., Gerberding, Richard A., Manchester: Manchester University Press, 93. ISBN 0719047900. OCLC 32699266. 
  4. Schulman, Jana K. (2002). The Rise of the Medieval World, 500–1300: A Biographical Dictionary. Greenwood Publishing Group, 101. ISBN 0-313-30817-9. 
  5. Cawthorne, Nigel (2004). Military Commanders: The 100 Greatest Throughout History. Enchanted Lion Books, 52–53. ISBN 1-59270-029-2. 
  6. Kibler, William W. (1995). Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Routledge, 205–206. ISBN 0-8240-4444-4. 
  7. (2002) "Alphaida (c. 654–c. 714)", Women in World History: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Waterford, Connecticut: Yorkin Publications. ISBN 0-7876-4074-3. 
  8. Fouracre, Paul (2000) The Age of Charles Martel, London, GBR: Longman, see ISBN 0-582-06475-9Script error: No such module "check isxn"., see [1], accessed 2 August 2015.

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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