Kiingereza cha Kale

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Kiingereza cha Kale ni Kiingereza kilichokuwa kikizungumzwa Uingereza kati ya karne ya 5 na 11.

Wasemaji wa Kiingereza cha kisasa kwa kawaida hawaelewi tena lugha ya kale ambayo ni karibu zaidi na Kijerumani hasa Kijerumani cha Kaskazini.

Historia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Kiingereza cha Kale kilianzishwa na Waanglia na Wasaksoni waliovamia kisiwa cha Uingereza wakitoka Ujerumani ya Kaskazini. Wavamiaji wengine walikuwa Wadenmark. Lugha hizi za Kigermanik ziliunganika kuwa Kiingereza cha Kale.

Uvamizi wa Wanormandi mwaka 1066 ulileta athira kubwa ya lugha ya Kifaransa. Kiingereza cha Kale kilibadilika kwa kupokea maneno mengi ya Kifaransa na kuwa lugha ya mchanganyiko inayoitwa "Kiingereza cha Kati".


Mifano ya Kiingereza cha Kale[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Sala ya Baba Yetu[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Mfano wa Kiingereza cha Kale ni maneno ya sala ya Kikristo ya "Baba Yetu" katika lahaja ya Kisaksoni cha Magharibi:

Fæder ure þu þe eart on heofonum,
Si þin nama gehalgod.
To becume þin rice,
gewurþe ðin willa, on eorðan swa swa on heofonum.
urne gedæghwamlican hlaf syle us todæg,
and forgyf us ure gyltas, swa swa we forgyfað urum gyltendum.
and ne gelæd þu us on costnunge, ac alys us of yfele.

Beowulf[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Mfano mashuhuri wa fasihi ya Kiingereza cha Kale ni shairi ya "Beowulf" ambayo ni shairi ndefu ya aya 3183. Inasimulia habari za kijana Beowulf anayetoka Uswidi pamoja na marafiki 14 kwa kusudi la kumsaidia mfalme wa Denmark Hrodgar. Hrodgar anateswa na Grendel ambaye ni zimwi mbaya anayemeza watu. Beowulf anamshinda Grendel na mamake na kupokea zawadi nyingi kutoka Hrodgar.

Kuna sehemu ya pili ya shairi ambako Beowulf mzee ni mfalme mwenyewe. Anapaswa kushindana na joka anayeharibu nchi. Safari hii Beowulf anauawa akitetea nchi yake kwa sababu ni mmoja tu kati ya wafuasi wake anayemsaidia.

Aya Kiingereza cha Kale Kiingereza cha Kisasa (karne ya 19)
[1] Hwæt! We Gardena in geardagum, Lo! We of Spear-Danes in days of yore,
[2] þeodcyninga, þrym gefrunon of the fame of the kings, have heard
[3] hu ða æþelingas ellen fremedon. How those nobles did great deeds
[4] Oft Scyld Scefing sceaþena þreatum, Often Scyld Scefing, from the army of his enemies,
[5] monegum mægþum, meodosetla ofteah, from many warriors, took the mead-benches
[6] egsode eorlas. Syððan ærest wearð terrified the nobles. After he was first
[7] feasceaft funden, he þæs frofre gebad discovered, a foundling, he gained a consolation
[8] weox under wolcnum, weorðmyndum þah, waxed under the heavens, prospered in glory,
[9] oðþæt him æghwylc þara ymbsittendra until eventually everyone in surrounding tribes,
[10] ofer hronrade hyran scolde, over the whale-road, had to obey
[11] gomban gyldan. Þæt wæs god cyning! and yield to him. He was a good king!

Tazama pia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Kiingereza


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