Homo

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Homo
Vifano vya spishi kadhaa za Homo
Vifano vya spishi kadhaa za Homo
Uainishaji wa kisayansi
Domeni: Eukaryota
Himaya: Animalia (Wanyama)
Faila: Chordata (Wanyama wenye ugwe wa neva mgongoni)
Ngeli: Mamalia (wenye viwele wanaonyonyesha wadogo wao)
Oda: Primates (Wanyama wanaofanana kiasi na binadamu)
Familia ya juu: Hominoidea (Wanaofanana zaidi na binadamu)
Familia: Hominidae (Walio karibu na binadamu kimaumbile)
Nusufamilia: Homininae
Kabila: Hominini
Jenasi: Homo
Spishi: H. antecessor Bermudez de Castro, Arsuaga, Carbonell, Rosas, Martinez & Mosquera, 1997

H. cepranensis Mallegni, Carnieri, Bisconti, Tartarelli, Ricci, Biddittu & Segre, 2003
H. erectus Dubois, 1894
H. ergaster Groves & Mazak, 1975
H. floresiensis Brown, Sutikna, Morwood, Soejono, Jatmiko, Saptomo & Due, 2004
H. gautengensis Curnoe, 2010
H. georgicus Vekua et al., 2002
H. habilis Leakey, Tobias & Napier, 1964
H. heidelbergensis
H. neanderthalensis King, 1864
H. platyops (Leakey et al., 2001
H. rhodesiensis Woodward, 1921
H. rudolfensis Alekseev, 1986
H. sapiens Linnaeus, 1758

Uenezi wa binadamu nje ya Afrika, kufuatana na ADN ya dutuvuo (mitokondria). Duara za rangi mbalimbali zinamaanisha maelfu ya miaka kabla ya leo.
Uenezi wa binadamu nje ya Afrika, kufuatana na ADN ya dutuvuo (mitokondria). Duara za rangi mbalimbali zinamaanisha maelfu ya miaka kabla ya leo.

Homo ni jenasi inayojumlisha binadamu na spishi zinazofanana naye sana.

Jina homo ni la Kilatini, likiwa na maana ya "mtu", na kiasili linahusiana na neno "ardhi".[1]

Historia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Jenasi hiyo inakadiriwa kuanza kuwepo walau miaka 2.3 milioni iliyopita[2][3] kutokana na nusukabila Australopithecina.

Spishi ya kwanza ya jenasi hiyo inawezekana ilikuwa ile ya Homo habilis, anayefikiriwa kutokana na Australopithecus garhi. Lakini mnamo Mei 2010 yalipatikana mabaki ya Homo gautengensis, spishi inayofikiriwa na wengine kuwa ya kale kuliko Homo habilis.[4]

Uenezi wa jenasi Homo kwa wakati na mahali.

Kutokana na Homo habilis walipatikana Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo georgicus, Homo antecessor, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo heidelbergensis n.k.

Homo neanderthalensis na mtu wa Denisova labda ni nususpishi za Homo sapiens zilizoweza kuzaliana na watu waliotokea Afrika.[5][6][7]

Spishi zote za jenasi Homo zimekoma, isipokuwa Homo sapiens (binadamu).

Picha[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. dhghem The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000.
  2. Stringer, C.B. (1994). "Evolution of early humans", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 242. ISBN 0-521-32370-3.  Also ISBN 0-521-46786-1 (paperback)
  3. McHenry, H.M (2009). "Human Evolution", Evolution: The First Four Billion Years. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 265. ISBN 978-0-674-03175-3. 
  4. "Toothy Tree-Swinger May Be Earliest Human"
  5. Green RE, Krause J, et al. A draft sequence of the Neandertal genome. Science. 2010 7 Mei;328(5979):710-22. doi:10.1126/science.1188021 PMID 20448178
  6. ^ Reich D, Green RE, Kircher M, et al. (Desemba 2010). "Genetic history of an archaic hominin group from Denisova Cave in Siberia". Nature 468 (7327): 1053–60. doi:10.1038/nature09710. PMID 21179161.
  7. Reich D ., et al. Denisova admixture and the first modern human dispersals into southeast Asia and Oceania. Am J Hum Genet. 2011 Oct 7;89(4):516-28, doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.09.005 PMID 21944045.
  • Serre et al. (2004). "No evidence of Neandertal mtDNA contribution to early modern humans". PLoS Biology 2 (3): 313–7. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020057
     . PMC 368159
     . PMID 15024415
      . 

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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