ARPANET

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ARPANET mnamo Machi 1977.
Ramani ya mtandao wa ARPANET mwaka 1974.

Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (kifupi: ARPANET) ulikuwa ndio mfumo wa kwanza wa intaneti kutumika, na mfumo wa kwanza kutumia TCP/IP protokali za kimuunganiko baina ya vifaa viwili vya kielektroniki. Misemo yote hii ndiyo inayotumika kiufundi katika kuielezea intaneti.

ARPANET ilianzishwa na Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) ya Marekani inayojihusisha na mambo ya kiusalama ya nchi hiyo.[1]

Katika harakati za kuendeleza mawazo ya J. C. R. Licklider , Bob Taylor ndiyo yaliyopelekea kuzinduliwa kwa mradi huu wa ARPANET mnamo mwaka 1966 na kuwezesha kompyuta mbalimbali kuwasiliana.[2] Taylor alimteuwa Larry Roberts kama msimamizi wa programu . Roberts ndiye alikuwa akitoa mbinu na namna ya kuunda mifumo ya kimtandao.[3] Alijaribu kuzitumia mbinu za Donald Davies’ katika kupelekea kufanyika uzinduzi wa ubadilishaji wa pakiti ,[4] na alitumia mbinu za uingizaji kutoka kwa Paul Baran.[5] ARPA ilimpa mkataba wa utengenezwaji wa mfumo wa mtandao kwa Bolt Beranek & Newman ambaye alikuja kutengeneza,kwa mara ya kwanza protokali ya mawasiliano kwenye mitandao .[6] Roberts alimhusisha Leonard Kleinrock kutoka Chuo Kikuu Cha Carlifonia katika kuunda mfumo wa kimahesabu wa kuorodhesha teknolojia ya mtandao wa pakiti.[5]

Kompyuta za mara ya kwanza kabisa kuunganishwa,ziliunganishwa mnamo mwaka 1969 na programu ya kudhibiti mtandao na hivyo kuanza kufanya kazi rasmi mnamo 1970 .[7][8] Uzinduzi na maendeleo ya programu ulipelekea Utawala wa mbali, uhamisho wa faili na barua pepe.[9] Mfumo huu ulianza kukuwa kwa haraka sana na hivyo kutajwa kuwa unafanya kazi vizuri 1975 pindi kampuni hiyo ya udhibiti kuipitsha kwa shirika la masuala ya kiulinzi lijulikanalo kama shirika la mawasiliano ya ulinzi.

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. ARPANET – The First Internet.
  2. "An Internet Pioneer Ponders the Next Revolution", The New York Times, December 20, 1999. Retrieved on 2021-05-06. Archived from the original on 2020-02-20. "Mr. Taylor wrote a white paper in 1968, a year before the network was created, with another ARPA research director, J. C. R. Licklider. The paper, "The Computer as a Communications Device," was one of the first clear statements about the potential of a computer network." 
  3. Hafner, Katie. "Lawrence Roberts, Who Helped Design Internet's Precursor, Dies at 81", The New York Times, 2018-12-30. (en-US) "He decided to use packet switching as the underlying technology of the Arpanet; it remains central to the function of the internet. And it was Dr. Roberts’s decision to build a network that distributed control of the network across multiple computers. Distributed networking remains another foundation of today’s internet." 
  4. Computer Pioneers - Donald W. Davies. “In 1965, Davies pioneered new concepts for computer communications in a form to which he gave the name "packet switching." ... The design of the ARPA network (ArpaNet) was entirely changed to adopt this technique.”; "A Flaw In The Design", The Washington Post, May 30, 2015. "The Internet was born of a big idea: Messages could be chopped into chunks, sent through a network in a series of transmissions, then reassembled by destination computers quickly and efficiently. Historians credit seminal insights to Welsh scientist Donald W. Davies and American engineer Paul Baran. ... The most important institutional force ... was the Pentagon’s Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) ... as ARPA began work on a groundbreaking computer network, the agency recruited scientists affiliated with the nation’s top universities." 
  5. 5.0 5.1 (2000) Inventing the Internet. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 39, 57–58. ISBN 978-0-2625-1115-5. “Baran proposed a "distributed adaptive message-block network" [in the early 1960s] ... Roberts recruited Baran to advise the ARPANET planning group on distributed communications and packet switching. ... Roberts awarded a contract to Leonard Kleinrock of UCLA to create theoretical models of the network and to analyze its actual performance.” 
  6. Roberts, Dr. Lawrence G. (November 1978). "The Evolution of Packet Switching". IEEE Invited Paper. http://www.ismlab.usf.edu/dcom/Ch10_Roberts_EvolutionPacketSwitching_IEEE_1978.pdf. Retrieved September 10, 2017. "Significant aspects of the network’s internal operation, such as routing, flow control, software design, and network control were developed by a BBN team consisting of Frank Heart, Robert Kahn, Severo Omstein, William Crowther, and David Walden".
  7. Bidgoli, Hossein (2004-05-11). The Internet Encyclopedia, Volume 2 (G - O) (in en). John Wiley & Sons, 39. ISBN 978-0-471-68996-6. 
  8. (2002) "Growth of the Internet", Optical Fiber Telecommunications IV-B: Systems and Impairments. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0123951731. 
  9. Lievrouw, L. A. (2006). Handbook of New Media: Student Edition. SAGE, 253. ISBN 1412918731.