Zumari

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Aina mbalimbali za zumari kutoka dunia nzima.
Zumari mbalimbali.
Zumari za kuungwa.
Zumari ya Kihindi ikipigwa kutoka pembeni.

Zumari (kutoka jina la Kiarabu; kwa Kiingereza "flute") ni ala ya muziki inayopigwa kwa kupulizwa mdomoni.

Umbo lake ni kama bomba jembamba upande wa mdomoni na pana upande unaotokea sauti.

Inapatikana kote duniani. Hewa inapulizwa ndani kwa mdomo kupitia shimo; mkondo wa hewa unapita kwenye kona kali ambako unaanza kutingatinga ukisababisha nguzo ya hewa iliyopo ndani ya bomba kutingatinga pia; mitetemo hii ni sauti.

Urefu wa bomba unafanya tabia ya sauti; kama ni fupi linatoa sauti ya juu; kama ni refu lina sauti ya chini.

Zumari nyingi huwa na mashimo kanda yanayofunikwa na kufunguliwa kwa vidole. Kwa kufungua shimo mchezaji anafupisha au kurefusha nguzo ya hewa ndani ya zumari inayotingatinga na kubadilisha sauti hivyo.

Kuna muundo kadhaa:

  • shimo la kupulizia liko upande wa pembeni wa filimbi
  • shimo liko mwanzoni wa bomba la filimbi
  • kuna bomba moja lenye mashimo ya pembeni kwa kubadilisha sauti
  • kuna mabomba bila mashimo ya pembeni yaliyounganishwa pamoja; kila filimbi ina sauti yake na mchezaji anateleza mdomo wake juu ya mashimo ya mabomba akipiga muziki yake.

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Buchanan, Donna A. 2001. "Bulgaria §II: Traditional Music, 2: Characteristics of Pre-Socialist Musical Culture, 1800–1944, (iii): Instruments". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers.
  • Crane, Frederick. 1972. Extant Medieval Musical Instruments: A Provisional Catalogue by Types. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press. ISBN 0-87745-022-6Script error: No such module "check isxn".
  • Galway, James. 1982. Flute. Yehudi Menuhin Music Guides. London: Macdonald. ISBN 0-356-04711-3Script error: No such module "check isxn". (cloth); ISBN 0-356-04712-1Script error: No such module "check isxn". (pbk.) New York: Schirmer Books. ISBN 0-02-871380-XScript error: No such module "check isxn". Reprinted 1990, London: Kahn & Averill London: Khan & Averill ISBN 1-871082-13-7Script error: No such module "check isxn".
  • Phelan, James, 2004. The Complete Guide to the [Flute and Piccolo], second edition. [S.l.]: Burkart-Phelan, Inc., 2004. ISBN 0-9703753-0-1Script error: No such module "check isxn".
  • Putnik, Edwin. 1970. The Art of Flute Playing. Evanston, Illinois: Summy-Birchard Inc. Revised edition 1973, Princeton, New Jersey and Evanston, Illinois. ISBN 0-87487-077-1Script error: No such module "check isxn".
  • Toff, Nancy. 1985. The Flute Book: A Complete Guide for Students and Performers. New York: Charles's Scribners Sons. ISBN 0-684-18241-6Script error: No such module "check isxn". Newton Abbot: David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153-8771-5Script error: No such module "check isxn". Second Edition 1996, New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-510502-8Script error: No such module "check isxn".
  • Wye, Trevor. 1988. Proper Flute Playing: A Companion to the Practice Books. London: Novello. ISBN 0-7119-8465-4Script error: No such module "check isxn".
  • Maclagan, Susan J. "A Dictionary for the Modern Flutist", 2009, Lanham, Maryland, USA: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-6711-6Script error: No such module "check isxn".

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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Je, unajua kitu kuhusu Zumari kama historia yake au mahusiano yake na mada nyingine?
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