Samba

Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru
Rukia: urambazaji, tafuta
Karnival mjini Rio de Janeiro
Mchezaji wa samba wakati wa karnival

Samba ni aina ya muziki pia ngoma na uimbaji kutoka nchini Brazil. Inaunganisha vyanzo vya Kiafrika na vya Kiulaya.

Samba rhythm.[1]

Vyanzo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Chanzo muhimu cha Samba ni muziki wa watumwa waliopelekwa Brazil kutoka Afrika hasa maeneo Afrika ya Magharibi halafu ya Kongo na Angola wakati wa karne ya 18 na 19.

Athira nyingine zilikuwa dansi za wahamiaji kutoka nchi za Ulaya.

Kutoka vyanzo hivi ilitokea muziki iliyoitwa choro hasa kule Rio de Janeiro kuanzia mnamo 1870. Choro ilikuwa muziki ya kitaifa ya kwanza ya Brazil. Tangu miaka ya 1920 samba ilichukua nafasi ya choro.

Mnamo 1917 kundi la Banda Odeon lilifanya rekodi ya kwanza ya samba inayojulikana kwa jina "Pelo telefone" („ks aimu“). Wimbo huu ulifaulu sana wakati wa carniyal.

Tangu 1928 vikundi vya kwanza vya "shule ya samba" viliundwa vilivyoandaa michango kwa karniyal ya mwaka ujao. Hapo walikutana hasa vijana kutoka maeneo maskini ya Rio 1928 walipoishi watu weusi wengi.

Lakini pia Wabrazil weupe wa tabaka za kati walipokea muziki ya samba na bendi nyini waliisambaza kote nchini.

Tangu miaka ya 1950 shule za samba zilianza kutawala carnival ya Rio. Leo hii carnival ya Rio intazamiwa kuwa sherehe kubwa duniani. Kilele chake ni maandamano ya vikundi vya shule za samba vinavyoshindana kwa ngao ya mshindi. Rio ina shule za samba 44 n kila moja ina wanachama maelfu. Wanaandaa pamoja maandamano ya karnival ijao inayohitaji mazoesimengi ya kuimba na kucheza kwa wala watakaohudhuria. Pamoja na hayo hsule nyingi zinatimiza pia wajibu kwenye mitaa ya vibanda.

Tovuti za nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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Wikimedia Commons ina media kuhusu:

Kujisomea[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • The Brazilian Sound: Samba, Bossa Nova and the Popular Music of Brazil. by McGowan, Chris and Pessanha, Ricardo. 2nd edition. Temple University Press. 1998.
  • Samba on Your Feet by Eduardo Montes-Bradley at the Internet Movie Database, documentary on the history of samba in Brazil with particular emphasis on Rio de Janeiro. The film is in Portuguese with English subtitles and approaches the subject from an interesting perspective.
  • Nosso senhor do samba. by Edigar de Alencar. Rio de Janeiro: FUNARTE, 1988.
  • O Encontro Entre Bandeira e Sinhô. by André Gardel Rio de Janeiro: Secretaria Municipal de Cultura, 1996.
  • Gildo De Stefano, Il popolo del samba. La vicenda e i protagonisti della storia della musica popolare brasiliana, Preface by Chico Buarque de Hollanda, Introduction by Gianni Minà, RAI-ERI, Rome 2005, ISBN 8839713484
  • O Sol nasceu pra todos:a História Secreta do Samba. by Luis Carlos de Morais Junior. Rio de Janeiro: Litteris, 2011.
  • Samba. by Alma Guillermoprieto. Jonathan Cape London 1990.
  • Rhythms of Resistance: African Musical Heritage in Brazil. by Peter Fryer. Pluto Press 2000.
  • Making Samba: A New History of Race and Music in Brazil. by Marc A. Hertzman. Duke University Press 2013.

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. Blatter, Alfred (2007). Revisiting music theory: a guide to the practice, p.28. ISBN 0-415-97440-2.