Mapigo yasiyo ya kawaida ya moyo

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A-fib
Mwainisho na taarifa za nje
Diagram of normal sinus rhythm as seen on ECG. In atrial fibrillation the P waves, which represent depolarization of the top of the heart, are absent.
ICD-10 I48.
ICD-9 427.31
DiseasesDB 1065
MedlinePlus 000184
eMedicine med/184 emerg/46
MeSH D001281

Mapigo yasiyo ya kawaida ya moyo (AF au A-fib) ni mapigo yasiyo ya kawaida ya moyo ambayo hudhihirika kupitia mapigo ya kasi na yasiyoambatana.[1] Mara nyingi, hali hii huanza kama vipindi vifupi vya mapigo yasiyo ya kawaida ambavyo huwa virefu zaidi na pengine huimarika baada ya muda.[2] Idadi kubwa ya vipindi hivi huwa bila dalili.[3] Mara kwa mara, hali zifuatazo zinaweza kuwepo: mipapatiko ya moyo, kuzirai, kupungukiwa na pumzi, au maumivu ya kifua .[4] Ugonjwa huu huongeza hatari ya kushindwa kwa moyo, dimenshia na kiharusi.[3]

Kisababishi na utambuzi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Hipatensheni na ugonjwa wa moyo unaoathiri vali ndivyo vipengele vikuu zaidi vinavyoweza kuzuiwa vya AF.[5][6] Vipengele vingine vya hatari vinavyohusishwa na ugonjwa huu ni pamoja na kushindwa kwa moyo, ugonjwa wa ateri ya moyo, kadiomiopathi na ugonjwa wa kimaumbile wa moyo.[5] Katika mataifa yanayostawi, ugonjwa wa moyo unaoathiri vali mara nyingi hutokea kufuatia homa ya yabisi.[7] Vipengele vya hatari vinavyohusiana na mapafu ni pamoja na COPD, unene na apnea ya usingizini.[3] Vipengele vingine hujumuisha unywaji pombe kupindukia, kisukari tamu, na thirotoksikosisi.[3][7] Hata hivyo, nusu ya visa hivi havihusiani na mojawapo wa hatari hizi.[3] Utambuzi hufanywa kwa kuhisi mapigo ya moyo, yanayoweza kuthibitishwa kwa elektrokadiogramu (ECG).[8] ECG haionyeshi mawimbi ya P na kiwango kisicho cha kawaida cha ventrikali.[8]

Matibabu[hariri | hariri chanzo]

AF mara nyingi hutibiwa kwa dawa ili kupunguza mapigo ya moyo hadi kiwango cha karibu kawaida (yaani udhibiti viwango) au kugeuza mapigo hadi mapigo ya kawaida ya sinasi (yaani udhibiti mapigo).[5] Urejeshaji mapigo ya moyo kwa umeme pia unaweza kutumiwa kugeuza AF hadi mapigo ya kawaida ya sinasi na mara nyingi hutumika kwa dharura ikiwa mgonjwa yuko hatarini.[9] Upasuaji wa kuondoa tishu unaweza kuzuia kurejea kwa ugonjwa huu katika baadhi ya watu.[10] Aspirin au dawa za kukinza mgando kama vile warfarin zinaweza kupendekezwa kulingana na hatari iliyopo ya kupata kiharusi.[3] Ingawa dawa hizi hupunguza hatari hii, pia huongeza viwango vya kuvuja damu nyingi.[11]

Epidemiolojia na historia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Ugonjwa wa mapigo yasiyo ya kawaida ya moyo ni hali inayotokea mara nyingi zaidi kati ya hali zote za mapigo yasiyo ya kawaida ya moyo.[3] Barani Ulaya na Marekani Kaskazini, kufikia mwaka wa 2014, ugonjwa huu uliathiri takriban asilimia 2 hadi 3 ya watu.[2] Asilimia hii ni ongezeko kutoka asilimia 0.4 hadi 1 ya watu katika mwaka wa 2005.[12] Katika mataifa yanayostawi, takriban asilimia 0.6 ya wanaume na asilimia 0.4 ya wanawake walikuwa wameathiriwa. Asilimia ya watu walio na AF huongezeka na umri kwa asilimia 0.14 katika watu wa chini ya miaka 50, asilimia 4 kwa watu wa miaka 60 na 70, na asilimia 14 kwa watu wa zaidi ya miaka 80 wakiathiriwa.[2] A-fib na mapigo yasiyo ya kawaida katika atria yalisababisha vifo 112,000 mwaka wa 2013, vilivyoongezeka kutoka vifo 29,000 mwaka wa 1990.[13] Ripoti ya kwanza inayofahamika ya mapigo yasiyo ya kawaida ilitolewa na John Baptist Senac katika mwaka wa 1749. Ilinakiliwa mara ya kwanza kwa ECG mwaka wa 1909 na Thomas Lewis.[3]

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. Heart Disease Other Related Conditions (September 3, 2014). Iliwekwa mnamo 19 February 2015.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Zoni-Berisso, M; Lercari, F; Carazza, T; Domenicucci, S (2014). "Epidemiology of atrial fibrillation: European perspective.". Clinical epidemiology 6: 213-20. doi:10.2147/CLEP.S47385 . PMID 24966695 .
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Munger, TM; Wu, LQ; Shen, WK (January 2014). "Atrial fibrillation.". Journal of biomedical research 28 (1): 1-17. doi:10.7555/JBR.28.20130191 . PMID 24474959 .
  4. (2010) Chamberlain's symptoms and signs in clinical medicine : an introduction to medical diagnosis., 13th ed., London: Hodder Arnold, 70-71. ISBN 9780340974254. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Anumonwo, JM; Kalifa, J (November 2014). "Risk Factors and Genetics of Atrial Fibrillation.". Cardiology clinics 32 (4): 485–494. doi:10.1016/j.ccl.2014.07.007 . PMID 25443231 .
  6. Nguyen, TN; Hilmer, SN; Cumming, RG (10 September 2013). "Review of epidemiology and management of atrial fibrillation in developing countries.". International journal of cardiology 167 (6): 2412-20. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2013.01.184 . PMID 23453870 .
  7. 7.0 7.1 Mischke, K; Knackstedt, C; Marx, N; Vollmann, D (April 2013). "Insights into atrial fibrillation.". Minerva medica 104 (2): 119-30. PMID 23514988 .
  8. 8.0 8.1 Ferguson C, Inglis SC, Newton PJ, Middleton S, Macdonald PS, Davidson PM; Inglis; Newton; Middleton; MacDonald; Davidson (2013). "Atrial fibrillation: stroke prevention in focus". ACC 00 (2): 92–8. doi:10.1016/j.aucc.2013.08.002 . PMID 24054541 . http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1036731413001690.
  9. Oishi, ML; Xing, S (February 2013). "Atrial fibrillation: management strategies in the emergency department.". Emergency medicine practice 15 (2): 1-26; quiz 27. PMID 23369365 .
  10. Amerena, JV; Walters, TE; Mirzaee, S; Kalman, JM (4 November 2013). "Update on the management of atrial fibrillation.". The Medical journal of Australia 199 (9): 592–7. doi:10.5694/mja13.10191 . PMID 24182224 .
  11. Steinberg, BA; Piccini, JP (14 April 2014). "Anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation.". BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 348: g2116. doi:10.1136/bmj.g2116 . PMID 24733535 .
  12. Fuster, Valentin (2006). "ACC/AHA/ESC 2006 Guidelines for the Management of Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the European Society of Cardiology Committee for Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Revise the 2001 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation): developed in collaboration with the European Heart Rhythm Association and the Heart Rhythm Society". Circulation 114 (7): e257–354. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.177292 . PMID 16908781 .
  13. GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.". Lancet 385 (9963): 117–171. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2 . PMID 25530442 .