Mani (kwa Kifarsi مانی, Māni; Ctesiphon (leo nchini Iraq), 216 – Gundeshapur (leo nchini Iran), 274 hivi) alikuwa mtu wa karne ya 3, aliyeanzisha dini ya Umani, ambayo kwa sasa haipo tena.
Tazama pia[hariri | hariri chanzo]
Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]
- Taraporewala, I.J.S., Manichaeism, Iran Chamber Society, retrieved 2015-01-12
- Boyce, Mary (2001), Zoroastrians: their religious beliefs and practices, Routledge, p. 111,
He was Iranian, of noble Parthian blood...
- Ball, Warwick (2001), Rome in the East: the transformation of an empire, Routledge, p. 437,
Manichaeism was a syncretic religion, proclaimed by the Iranian Prophet Mani.
- Sundermann, Werner (2009), "Mani, the founder of the religion of Manicheism in the 3rd century AD", Iranica, Sundermann,
According to the Fehrest, Mani was of Arsacid stock on both his father’s and his mother’s sides, at least if the readings al-ḥaskāniya (Mani’s father) and al-asʿāniya (Mani’s mother) are corrected to al-aškāniya and al-ašḡāniya (ed. Flügel, 1862, p. 49, ll. 2 and 3) respectively. The forefathers of Mani’s father are said to have been from Hamadan and so perhaps of Iranian origin (ed. Flügel, 1862, p. 49, 5–6). The Chinese Compendium, which makes the father a local king, maintains that his mother was from the house Jinsajian, explained by Henning as the Armenian Arsacid family of Kamsarakan (Henning, 1943, p. 52, n. 4 = 1977, II, p. 115). Is that fact, or fiction, or both? The historicity of this tradition is assumed by most, but the possibility that Mani’s noble Arsacid background is legendary cannot be ruled out (cf. Scheftelowitz, 1933, pp. 403–4). In any case, it is characteristic that Mani took pride in his origin from time-honored Babel, but never claimed affiliation to the Iranian upper class.
- Bausani, Alessandro (2000), Religion in Iran: from Zoroaster to Baha'ullah, Bibliotheca Persica Press, p. 80,
We are now certain that Mani was of Iranian stock on both his father's and his mother's side.
- Henning, W.B., The Book of Giants, BSOAS, Vol. XI, Part 1, 1943, pp. 52–74: "...Mani, who was brought up and spent most of his life in a province of the Persian empire, and whose mother belonged to a famous Parthian family, did not make any use of the Iranian mythological tradition. There can no longer be any doubt that the Iranian names of Sām, Narīmān, etc., that appear in the Persian and Sogdian versions of the Book of the Giants, did not figure in the original edition, written by Mani in the Syriac language."
Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]
- Asmussen, Jes Peter, comp., Manichaean Literature: Representative Texts, Chiefly from Middle Persian and Parthian Writings, 1975, Scholars' Facsimiles & Reprints, ISBN 978-0-8201-1141-4.
- Alexander Böhlig, 'Manichäismus' in: Theologische Realenzyklopädie 22 (1992), 25–45.
- Amin Maalouf, The Gardens of Light [Les Jardins de Lumière], translated from French by Dorothy S. Blair, 242 p. (Interlink Publishing Group, New York, 2007). ISBN 1-56656-248-1
Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]
- Manichaeist art - University of Washington
- "Mani and Manichaeism in the J.R.Ritman Library"
- The Book of the Giants by W.B. Henning, 1943
- Acta Archelai
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