Major Depressive Disorder

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Tatizo la kiakili linalosababisha huzuni kali kwa muda mrefu (MDD), linalojulikana tu kama huzuni, ni tatizo la akili lililo na sifa za angalau wiki mbili za huzuni ambao upo kwa hali nyingi.[1] Mara nyingi huambatana na upungufu wa kujithamini, kupoteza hamu kwa shughuli ambazo kwa kawaida zinafurahisha, nguvu za chini, na uchungu bila chanzo dhahiri.[1] Watu pia mara kwa mara wanaweza kuwa na imani za uongo au kuona au kusikia vitu ambavyo wengine hawawezi.[1] Watu wengine wana vipindi vya huzuni vinavyotenganishwa na miaka ambayo wapo sawa, huku wengine huwa na dalili karibu kila mara.[2] Tatizo la kiakili linalosababisha huzuni kali kwa muda mrefu unaweza kuiathiri vibaya maisha ya mtu, maisha ya kazi, au elimu, sawa na tabia za kulala, kula na afya kijumla.[1][2] Kati ya 2-8% ya watu wazima walio na tatizo la kiakili linalosababisha huzuni kali kwa muda mrefu hufa kwa kujiua,[3][4] na karibu 50% ya watu ambao hufa kwa kujitia kitanzi walikuwa na huzuni au tatizo jingine la hisia.[5]

Sababu na utambuzi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Chanzo kinaaminiwa kuwa mchanganyiko wa vipengele vya genetiki, mazingira, na kisaikolojia.[1] Vipengele vyenye hatari ni pamoja na historia ya familia ya hali, mabadiliko makuu katika maisha, dawa fulani, shida sugu za kiafya, namatumizi mabaya ya dawa.[1][2] Karibu 40% ya hatari hizi huonekana kuhusiana na jenetiki.[2] Utambuzi wa tatizo la kiakili linalosababisha huzuni kali kwa muda mrefu unategemea uzoefu wa awali wa mtu na uchunguzi wa hali ya akili.[6] Hakuna vipimo vya mahabara kwa tatizo la kiakili linalosababisha huzuni.[2] Kupima, hata hivyo, kunaweza kufanywa ili kuondoa hali za kimwili zinazoweza kusababisha dalili kama hizo.[6] Tatizo la kiakili linalosababisha huzuni kali ni kali sana na hukaa kwa muda mrefu kuliko huzuni, ambao ni sehemu ya kawaida ya maisha.[2] Nguvu za Kazi Maalum ya Huduma za Uzuiaji Marekani (USPSTF) hupendekeza uchunguzi wa huzuni miongoni mwa walio na umri wa zaidi ya miaka 12,[7][8] huku mapitio ya awali ya Cochrane yalipata kuwa matumizi ya kawaida ya hojaji za uchunguzi una athari finyu katika utambuzi au matibabu.[9]

Tiba na matarajio yake[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Kawaida, watu wanatibiwa kwa ushauri na dawa za kupunguza huzuni.[1] Dawa huonekana kuwa faafu, japo athari hiyo inaweza kuwa tu na maana kwa wale ambao wana huzuni kali.[10][11] Si wazi iwapo dawa huathiri hatari ya kujitia kitanzi.[12] Aina za ushauri ambao hutumika ni pamoja na tiba ya utambuzi wa kitabia (CBT) na tiba ya watu binafsi.[1][13] Ikiwa hatua nyingine si faafu, tiba ya msukomsuko kielektroniki (ECT) unaweza kuzingatiwa.[1] Kulazwa hospitalini kunaweza kuwa muhimu katika hali za hatari ya kujiumiza na mara kwa mara kunaweza kutokea bila ruhusa ya mtu huyo.[14]

Uenezi na historia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Tatizo la kiakili linalosababisha huzuni kali kwa muda mrefu uliathiri takriban watu bilioni 216 (3% ya idadi ya watu ulimwenguni) mwaka wa 2015.[15] Asilimia ya watu ambao waliathiriwa kwa wakati mmoja maishani hutofautiana kuanzia 7% Japan hadi 21% Ufaransa.[16] Viwango vya maisha ni juu katika ulimwengu ulioendelea (15%) ikilinganishwa na ulimwengu unaoendelea (11%).[16] Husababisha ya pili zaidi miaka ya kuishi na ulemavu, baada ya maumivu ya chini ya mgongo.[17] Mwanzo wa kawaida zaidi ni wakati mtu ana umri wa miaka ya ishirini na thelathini.[2][16] Wanawake huathiriwa karibu mara mbili ya wanaume.[2][16] Muungano wa Madaktari wa Ugonjwa wa kiakili Marekani waliongeza "Tatizo la kiakili linalosababisha huzuni kali kwa muda mrefu" kwa Mwongozo wa Utambuzi na Takwimu za Matatizo ya Kiakili (DSM-III) 1980.[18] Ulikuwa mgawanyiko wa jakamoyo ya huzuni katika (DSM-III) ya awali, ambao pia umezunguka hali ambazo kwa sasa zinajulikana kama huzuni kali na tatizo la marekebisho na hisia za huzuni.[18] Wale ambao wanaathiriwa au waliathiriwa hapo awali wanaweza kuwaunyanyapaa.[19]

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Depression (May 2016). Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 5 August 2016. Iliwekwa mnamo 31 July 2016.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 American Psychiatric Association (2013), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.), Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing, pp. 160–168, ISBN 978-0-89042-555-8, archived from the original on 31 July 2016, retrieved 22 July 2016 
  3. (2014) The Oxford Handbook of Depression and Comorbidity (in en). Oxford University Press, 254. ISBN 9780199797042. 
  4. (2015) Major Depressive Disorder (in en). Oxford University Press, PT27. ISBN 9780190264321. 
  5. Bachmann, S (6 July 2018). "Epidemiology of Suicide and the Psychiatric Perspective". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15 (7): 1425. doi:10.3390/ijerph15071425 . PMC 6068947 . PMID 29986446 . "Half of all completed suicides are related to depressive and other mood disorders".
  6. 6.0 6.1 (2015) The ADA Practical Guide to Patients with Medical Conditions, 2 (in en), John Wiley & Sons, 339. ISBN 9781118929285. 
  7. "Screening for Depression in Adults: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement". JAMA 315 (4): 380–7. January 2016. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.18392 . PMID 26813211 .
  8. "Screening for Depression in Children and Adolescents: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement". Annals of Internal Medicine 164 (5): 360–6. March 2016. doi:10.7326/M15-2957 . PMID 26858097 .
  9. "Screening and case finding instruments for depression". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): CD002792. October 2005. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002792.pub2 . PMID 16235301 .
  10. "Antidepressant drug effects and depression severity: a patient-level meta-analysis". JAMA 303 (1): 47–53. January 2010. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.1943 . PMC 3712503 . PMID 20051569 .
  11. "Initial severity and antidepressant benefits: a meta-analysis of data submitted to the Food and Drug Administration". PLoS Medicine 5 (2): e45. February 2008. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050045 . PMC 2253608 . PMID 18303940 .
  12. "Suicides and Suicide Attempts during Long-Term Treatment with Antidepressants: A Meta-Analysis of 29 Placebo-Controlled Studies Including 6,934 Patients with Major Depressive Disorder". Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 85 (3): 171–9. 2016. doi:10.1159/000442293 . PMID 27043848 .
  13. "Cognitive behavioral therapy for mood disorders: efficacy, moderators and mediators". The Psychiatric Clinics of North America 33 (3): 537–55. September 2010. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2010.04.005 . PMC 2933381 . PMID 20599132 .
  14. American Psychiatric Association (2006). American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders: Compendium 2006 (in en). American Psychiatric Pub, 780. ISBN 9780890423851. 
  15. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named GBD2015Pre
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 "The epidemiology of depression across cultures". Annual Review of Public Health 34: 119–38. 2013. doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031912-114409 . PMC 4100461 . PMID 23514317 .
  17. Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 Collaborators (August 2015). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet 386 (9995): 743–800. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60692-4 . PMC 4561509 . PMID 26063472 .
  18. 18.0 18.1 (2008) Handbook of Psychological Assessment, Case Conceptualization, and Treatment, Volume 1: Adults (in en). John Wiley & Sons, 32. ISBN 9780470173565. 
  19. (2015) "Introduction", Major Depressive Disorder (in en). Oxford University Press, Chapter 1. ISBN 9780190206185. 

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • American Psychiatric Association (2000a). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision: DSM-IV-TR, Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.. ISBN 978-0-89042-025-6. 
  • (2005) Abnormal psychology: An integrative approach (5th ed.). Belmont, CA, USA: Thomson Wadsworth. ISBN 978-0-534-63356-1. 
  • [1979] (1987) Cognitive Therapy of depression. New York, NY, USA: Guilford Press. ISBN 978-0-89862-919-4. 
  • Hergenhahn BR (2005). An Introduction to the History of Psychology, 5th, Belmont, CA, USA: Thomson Wadsworth. ISBN 978-0-534-55401-9. 
  • (1994) The discovery of being: Writings in existential psychology. New York, NY, USA: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-31240-9. 
  • (1996) Melancholia: a disorder of movement and mood: a phenomenological and neurobiological review. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-47275-3. 
  • Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain (2008). British National Formulary (BNF 56). UK: BMJ Group and RPS Publishing. ISBN 978-0-85369-778-7. 
  • (2003) Kaplan & Sadock's synopsis of psychiatry: behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 978-0-7817-3183-6. 

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]