Mafunzo ya mpiga risasi hai

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Mafunzo ya ufyatuaji hai (wakati fulani huitwa mafunzo ya kuitikia mpiga risasi amilifu au maandalizi ya mpiga risasi amilifu) hushughulikia tishio la mpiga risasi anayeendelea kwa kutoa ufahamu, maandalizi, uzuiaji na mbinu za kukabiliana.[1][2]aji risasi yalikwisha kabla ya polisi kuwasili Marekani. [3]Idara ya Haki inasema wanasalia "kujitolea kusaidia mafunzo kwa uzuiaji bora, mwitikio, na mazoea ya kupona yanayohusisha matukio ya ufyatuaji risasi" na wanahimiza mafunzo kwa raia na vile vile washiriki wa kwanza.[4]

Ingawa mafunzo kwa sasa ni ya hiari, biashara na mashirika yanaanza kunukuliwa kutokana na kutofuata miongozo ya OSHA kuhusu Vurugu Kazini.[5]

Mashirika kama vile biashara, mahali pa ibada au elimu, huchagua kufadhili mafunzo ya ufyatuaji risasi kwa kuzingatia wasiwasi kwamba kufikia 2013, 66.9% ya matukio ya ufyatu


Shirika la Upelelezi la Shirikisho (FBI) linasisitiza zaidi kwamba mafunzo na mazoezi ya kiraia yanapaswa kujumuisha: 'uelewa wa vitisho vinavyokabili na pia hatari na chaguzi zinazopatikana katika matukio ya ufyatuaji risasi.[6]

Mahitaji ya kisheria/serikali

Nchini Marekani, OSHA imetoa mapendekezo kwa biashara linapokuja suala la upigaji risasi na mahali pa kazi.[7][8] Miongozo yao ndani ya mashirika fulani pia inaenea hadi katika ujenzi wa dhamana na miundo ya vifaa, pamoja na kutekelezwa ipasavyo mafunzo ya maandalizi ya mpiga risasi. [9] Wabunge pia wamewajibisha mashirika kwa kutokuwa na mafunzo yanayofaa au itifaki nyinginezo, wakinukuu kipengele cha wajibu wa jumla cha OSHA. [10] Mnamo mwaka wa 2017, Idara ya Leba ilichapisha "Taratibu za Utekelezaji na Ratiba ya Kufichuliwa Kazini kwa Vurugu Kazini" ambayo hutoa mwongozo wa sera na taratibu za kufuatwa wakati wa kutoa manukuu yanayohusiana na vurugu mahali pa kazi.[11]

Kwa kuzingatia mabadiliko haya, mafunzo ya kukabiliana na wapiga risasi yanakuwa kiwango cha kawaida kote Amerika.[12] Mbinu za sasa za mafunzo ya upigaji risasi zinaanzia vitabu hadi video hadi kozi za siku nyingi kwenye tovuti, lakini si zote ziko chini ya miongozo ya OSHA au idhini za majaji.

Aina za mafunzo

Uchanganuzi mwingi umefanywa kuhusu mbinu na mbinu za wapiga risasi hai.[13]Kwa kujibu data, baadhi ya programu za mafunzo ni pamoja na kuangazia mwitikio wa kimatibabu kwa raia, ilhali programu zingine za mafunzo huweka umakini wao katika kuzuia, kujilinda, usalama wa jengo, kutoroka wakati wa tukio, saikolojia au kutoroka kimwili.[14]Fikra za kawaida zinazofundishwa mara kwa mara ni "Kimbia/Ficha/Pigana" kama inavyoelezwa na Idara ya Usalama wa Taifa, "Epuka, Kataa, Tetea" ambayo ilitengenezwa na kituo cha ALERRT katika Chuo Kikuu cha Jimbo la Texas, [15] "ALICE" ambayo ni kifupi cha "Alert, Lockdown, Inform, Counter, Evacuate" inayotolewa na Navigate 360, na "STAAAT" au "Situational Threat Awareness, Assessment, and Action Training" iliyotengenezwa na Security Advisors Consulting Group.[16]Kuna mitazamo tofauti juu ya ufanisi wa dhana fulani, na viwango vinasasishwa kila mara kwa data na mbinu mpya.

Mafunzo kwa ajili ya utekelezaji wa sheria

Programu nyingi za mafunzo huzingatia kikundi fulani au vikundi vya watu. ALERRT (Mafunzo ya Majibu ya Haraka ya Utekelezaji wa Sheria ya Juu) kwa kushirikiana na CRASE, na FLETC (Kituo cha Mafunzo ya Utekelezaji wa Sheria cha Shirikisho) ni mifano ya mafunzo ya ngazi ya Shirikisho na Jimbo, yanayokusudiwa kuwasaidia wajibu wa kwanza na mawakala wa shirikisho kujua jinsi ya kukabiliana na ufyatuaji risasi unaoendelea. .[17] Mashirika mengine ya ndani pia yanajiunga na vita na kuanzisha aina yao ya mafunzo. [18][19]

Mafunzo kwa mashirika

Mafunzo ya kukabiliana na ufyatuaji yasichanganywe na semina za hotuba, kozi za elimu zinazoendelea, au kuomba kutembelewa na watekelezaji sheria wa eneo lako. FBI inasisitiza umuhimu kwamba mafunzo na mazoezi kwa raia ni pamoja na kuelewa vitisho vinavyokabili na pia hatari na chaguzi zinazopatikana katika matukio ya ufyatuaji risasi. Programu za kibinafsi zinapatikana kwa mashirika, biashara, shule (na zaidi) ambazo hutoa mafunzo ya jinsi ya kujibu au kujiandaa kwa mpiga risasi anayeendelea.

Mafunzo ya kukabiliana na ufyatuaji risasi yamekuwa huduma inayohitajika kutokana na ongezeko la matukio ya upigaji risasi nchini Marekani, pamoja na mabadiliko yanayoendelea ya sheria, madai na mahitaji ya OSHA. Kuna programu chache za mafunzo ya ufyatuaji zinazopatikana kwa umma, na si wote wanaokubali kuhusu mbinu sahihi za kushughulikia suala hilo. Ofisi ya Shirikisho ya Upelelezi (FBI) inahimiza kila mtu kupokea mafunzo yanayofaa. TheFBI[20] imesema:

Kwa kutambua ongezeko la tishio la washambuliaji na wepesi wa matukio ya ufyatuaji risasi, matokeo [yetu] ya utafiti yanaunga mkono umuhimu wa mafunzo na mazoezi—sio tu kwa ajili ya utekelezaji wa sheria bali pia kwa raia...hata wakati utekelezaji wa sheria ulikuwepo au kuweza kujibu ndani ya dakika chache, raia mara nyingi walipaswa kufanya maamuzi ya maisha na kifo, na kwa hiyo, wanapaswa kushirikishwa katika mafunzo na majadiliano juu ya maamuzi ambayo wanaweza kukabiliana nayo.[21]

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. A Study of Active Shooter Incidents in the United States Between 2000 and 2013 (en-us). Federal Bureau of Investigation. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-07-30.
  2. de Jager, Elzerie; Goralnick, Eric; McCarty, Justin C.; Hashmi, Zain G.; Jarman, Molly P.; Haider, Adil H. (2018-09-11). "Lethality of Civilian Active Shooter Incidents With and Without Semiautomatic Rifles in the United States". JAMA 320 (10): 1034. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.11009 . ISSN 0098-7484 . http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.11009.
  3. A Study of Active Shooter Incidents in the United States Between 2000 and 2013 (en-us). Federal Bureau of Investigation. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-07-30.
  4. A Study of Active Shooter Incidents in the United States Between 2000 and 2013 (en-us). Federal Bureau of Investigation. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-07-30.
  5. Enforcement Procedures and Scheduling for Occupational Exposure to Workplace Violence | Occupational Safety and Health Administration. www.osha.gov. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-07-30.
  6. A Study of Active Shooter Incidents in the United States Between 2000 and 2013 (en-us). Federal Bureau of Investigation. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-07-30.
  7. Enforcement Procedures and Scheduling for Occupational Exposure to Workplace Violence | Occupational Safety and Health Administration. www.osha.gov. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-07-30.
  8. OSH Act of 1970 | Occupational Safety and Health Administration. www.osha.gov. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-07-30.
  9. Enforcement Procedures and Scheduling for Occupational Exposure to Workplace Violence | Occupational Safety and Health Administration. www.osha.gov. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-07-30.
  10. OSH Act of 1970 | Occupational Safety and Health Administration. www.osha.gov. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-07-30.
  11. OSH Act of 1970 | Occupational Safety and Health Administration. www.osha.gov. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-07-30.
  12. A Study of Active Shooter Incidents in the United States Between 2000 and 2013 (en-us). Federal Bureau of Investigation. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-07-30.
  13. A Study of Active Shooter Incidents in the United States Between 2000 and 2013 (en-us). Federal Bureau of Investigation. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-07-30.
  14. OSH Act of 1970 | Occupational Safety and Health Administration. www.osha.gov. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-07-30.
  15. Martaindale, M. Hunter; Blair, J. Pete (2019-04-09). "The Evolution of Active Shooter Response Training Protocols Since Columbine: Lessons From the Advanced Law Enforcement Rapid Response Training Center". Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 35 (3): 342–356. doi:10.1177/1043986219840237 . ISSN 1043-9862 . http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1043986219840237.
  16. Jarpey, Gregory; McCoy, R. Scott (2017), "Training Programs", Security Operations Center Guidebook (Elsevier): 73–81, retrieved 2022-07-30 
  17. Martaindale, M. Hunter; Blair, J. Pete (2019-04-09). "The Evolution of Active Shooter Response Training Protocols Since Columbine: Lessons From the Advanced Law Enforcement Rapid Response Training Center". Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 35 (3): 342–356. doi:10.1177/1043986219840237 . ISSN 1043-9862 . http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1043986219840237.
  18. The State of Delaware. Delaware.gov - Official Website of the State of Delaware (en-US). delaware.gov - Official Website of the State of Delaware. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-07-30.
  19. City of Olympia - Home. www.olympiawa.gov. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-07-30.
  20. de Jager, Elzerie; Goralnick, Eric; McCarty, Justin C.; Hashmi, Zain G.; Jarman, Molly P.; Haider, Adil H. (2018-09-11). "Lethality of Civilian Active Shooter Incidents With and Without Semiautomatic Rifles in the United States". JAMA 320 (10): 1034. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.11009 . ISSN 0098-7484 . http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.11009.
  21. A Study of Active Shooter Incidents in the United States Between 2000 and 2013 (en-us). Federal Bureau of Investigation. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-07-30.