La Llorona

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Sanamu kwenye kisiwa cha La Llorona huko Xochimilco, Mexico, 2015

La Llorona (matamshi ya Kihispania: [la ʝoˈɾona]; "The Weeping Woman" au "The Wailer") katika ngano za Amerika Kusini, ni mzuka ambaye huzurura maeneo ya pembezoni mwa maji akiomboleza watoto wake waliozama.[1]

Hadithi hiyo ina maelezo na matoleo anuwai. Katika toleo la kawaida la hadithi hiyo, mwanamke mzuri anayeitwa Maria anaolewa na ranchero tajiri ambaye anazaa naye watoto wawili. Siku moja, Maria anamwona mumewe akiwa na mwanamke mwingine na akiwa na hasira kali, anawazamisha watoto wao kwenye mto, ambao anajuta mara moja. Kwa sababu ya kuwaokoa na kulawa na hatia, yeye huzama pia lakini hawezi kuingia maisha ya baadaye bila watoto wake.[2] Katika toleo lingine la hadithi, watoto wake ni haramu, na yeye huwazamisha ili baba yao asiweze kuwachukua kwenda kulelewa na mkewe.[3] Mandhari ya mara kwa mara katika tofauti juu ya hadithi ya La Llorona ni pamoja na nguo nyeupe, kuomboleza usiku, na ushirika na maji.[4]

Asili[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Hadithi ya La Llorona inasimuliwa kijadi kote Puerto Rico, Mexico, Amerika ya Kati na ya Kusini.[5] La Llorona wakati mwingine inachanganywa na La Malinche,[6] mwanamke wa Nahua ambaye aliwahi kuwa mkalimani wa Hernán Cortés na pia akamzaa mtoto wa kiume.[7] La Malinche inachukuliwa kama mama wa watu wa kisasa wa Mexico na ishara ya uhaini wa kitaifa kwa jukumu lake katika kusaidia Uhispania.[8]

Hadithi za kilio cha kike cha kulia ni kawaida katika ngano za tamaduni zote za Iberia na Amerindian. Wasomi wameelezea kufanana kati ya La Llorona na Cihuacōātl ya hadithi za Waazteki,[5] na vile vile Hawa na Lilith wa hadithi za Kiebrania.[9] Uchunguzi wa Mwandishi Ben Radford juu ya hadithi ya La Llorona, iliyochapishwa katika Mysterious New Mexico, iligundua vitu vya kawaida vya hadithi katika hadithi ya Wajerumani iliyoanzia 1486.[10] La Llorona pia inafanana na hadithi ya zamani ya Uigiriki ya mungu wa kike Lamia, ambayo Hera, mke wa Zeus, aligundua juu ya uhusiano wake na Lamia na kuua watoto wote ambao Lamia alikuwa na Zeus. Kwa sababu ya wivu juu ya kupoteza watoto wake mwenyewe, Lamia aua watoto wengine wa wanawake.[11]

Wakati mizizi ya hadithi ya La Llorona inaonekana kuwa ya kabla ya Wahispania,[12] kumbukumbu ya mwanzo iliyochapishwa kwa hadithi hiyo ni soneti ya karne ya 19 na mshairi wa Mexico Manuel Carpio.[5] Shairi hilo haliongelei mauaji ya watoto wachanga, badala yake La Llorona imetambuliwa kama mzuka wa mwanamke aliyeitwa Rosalia ambaye aliuawa na mumewe.[13]

Kwanda kanda[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Ndani ya Mexiko[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Hadithi ya La Llorona imejikita sana katika tamaduni maarufu ya Mexiko, hadithi yake iliwaambia watoto wahimize wasitangatanga baada ya giza, na roho yake mara nyingi huibuka katika kazi za sanaa,[14] kama ile ya Alejandro Colunga.[15] "La Cihuacoatle, Leyenda de la Llorona" ni maonyesho ya maonyesho ya kila mwaka ya hadithi ya La Llorona iliyowekwa katika mkoa wa Xochimilco wa Mexico City,[16] iliyoanzishwa mnamo 1993 ili sanjari na Siku ya Wafu.[17]

Nchini Marekani[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Katika Amerika Kusini Magharibi, hadithi ya La Llorona inaambiwa kuwaogopesha watoto kuwa na tabia njema,[18] wakati mwingine haswa kuzuia watoto kucheza karibu na maji hatari.[19] Pia waliambiwa ni kwamba kilio chake husikika wakati anatembea kuzunguka barabara au karibu na miili ya maji ili kuogopesha watoto kutoka kuzurura, kama hadithi za El Cucuy. Katika hadithi ya Chumash asili ya Kusini mwa California, La Llorona imeunganishwa na nunašɨš, kiumbe wa hadithi na kilio kama hicho cha mtoto mchanga.[20]

Ndani ya Venezuela[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Katika ngano za Venezuela, hadithi ya La Llorona imewekwa katika Llanos ya Venezuela wakati wa kipindi cha ukoloni. La Llorona inasemekana kuwa roho ya mwanamke aliyekufa kwa huzuni baada ya watoto wake kuuawa na yeye au familia yake.[21][22] Kwa kawaida familia ziliweka misalaba ya mbao juu ya milango yao ili kuepusha mizimu hiyo.[22]

Katika tamaduni maarufu[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Filamu[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Mwigizaji anayewakilisha La Llorona katika filamu ya The Mexican Dream, 2003

Hadithi ya La Llorona ilitokea kwa mara ya kwanza kwenye filamu mnamo 1935's La Llorona, iliyoonyeshwa huko Mexico.[23] Sinema ya René Cardona ya 1960 La Llorona pia alipigwa risasi huko Mexico,[24] kama ilivyokuwa filamu ya kutisha ya 1963, The Curse of the Crying Woman iliyoongozwa na Rafael Baledón.[25]

Filamu ya kutisha ya Mexico ya Kilometer 31[26] ya 2008 imeongozwa na hadithi ya La Llorona.[27] Kwa kuongezea, miaka ya mapema ya 2000 iliona sinema ya bajeti ya chini kulingana na La Llorona, pamoja na:

  • Mto: Hadithi ya La Llorona.[28]
  • Kisasi cha La Llorona.[29]
  • Laana ya La Llorona.[30]

La Llorona ndiye mpinzani mkuu katika sinema ya J-ok'el ya 2007.[31] Katika filamu ya vibonzo ya Mexico ya 2011 La Leyenda de la Llorona, anaonyeshwa kama mhusika mwenye huruma, ambaye watoto wake hufa katika ajali badala ya mikononi mwa mama yao.[32]

Mnamo Julai 2019, James Wan, Gary Dauberman na Emilie Gladstone walitengeneza filamu iliyoitwa Laana ya La Llorona. Filamu hiyo ni sehemu ya sita katika Ulimwengu wa Conjuring, iliyotengenezwa na New Line Cinema na Warner Bros Picha. Filamu hiyo iliongozwa na Michael Chaves na nyota Linda Cardellini, Raymond Cruz, Patricia Velasquez na Marisol Ramirez, ambaye anaonyesha mzuka huo.[33]

Pia mnamo 2019, Jayro Bustamante aliongoza filamu ya Guatemala La Llorona, akicheza na María Mercedes Coroy, ambayo ilionyeshwa katika sehemu ya Kisasa ya Sinema ya Ulimwengu kwenye Tamasha la Kimataifa la Filamu la 2019 Toronto.[34]

Ukumbi wa michezo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Mwandishi wa tamthilia wa Mexico, Josefina López aliandika "Roho zisizoshindwa",[35] ambayo hutumia hadithi ya La Llorona kama kifaa cha njama. Mchezo ulionyeshwa katika Chuo Kikuu cha Jimbo la California, Theatre ya Northridge mnamo 1995.[36]

Fasihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Riwaya ya uwongo ya sayansi ya Nancy Farmer ya 2002, The House of Scorpion inajumuisha marejeleo ya La Llorona.[37]

Hadithi ya La Llorona imejadiliwa katika kumbukumbu ya Jaquira Díaz ya 2019, Wasichana wa Kawaida:

“Sehemu ya kutisha zaidi haikuwa kwamba La Llorona alikuwa mnyama, au kwamba alikuja wakati ulimwita jina lake mara tatu gizani, au kwamba angeweza kuingia chumbani kwako usiku na kukuchukua kutoka kitandani kwako kama vile angefanya watoto wake mwenyewe. Ilikuwa kwamba mara moja angekuwa mtu, mwanamke, mama. Na kisha kidogo, papo hapo, sekunde ya pili baadaye, alikuwa monster.”[38]

Muziki[hariri | hariri chanzo]

"La Llorona" ni wimbo wa watu wa Mexico uliosifiwa na Andres Henestrosa mnamo 1941.[39] Imekuwa ikifunikwa na wanamuziki anuwai, pamoja na Chavela Vargas,[40] Joan Baez,[41] na Lila Downs.[42]

Televisheni[hariri | hariri chanzo]

La Llorona ni mpinzani katika kipindi cha majaribio cha 2005 cha safu ya Televisheni isiyo ya kawaida,[43] na katika kipindi cha msimu wa pili wa 2012 wa safu ya Runinga ya Grimm.[44]

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. Christine Delsol (2012-10-10). Mexico's legend of La Llorona continues to terrify (en-US). SFGATE. Iliwekwa mnamo 2021-04-07.
  2. Christine Delsol (2012-10-10). Mexico's legend of La Llorona continues to terrify (en-US). SFGATE. Iliwekwa mnamo 2021-04-07.
  3. https://d1wqtxts1xzle7.cloudfront.net/35829973/simerka_llorona.pdf?1417735311=&response-content-disposition=inline%3B+filename%3DWomen_Hollering_Contemporary_Chicana_Rei.pdf&Expires=1602099801&Signature=eRV7qyMzi~7ZSswaXXtRkr3hHtEonM5PZb-maR39uDaMJpPjcJTsJv5-xQsIlb~oJa~LiFScwL01wvlV7QpQDwXEXUECjWwQVUtR01tQRaENvVguMMRmT6RGE6FUPYXkO3ur22cY3Kuz7xzBLpQdAAmW5Qchg~5hvIrV~ntn1nvPii1q0PAGygigP~IRTOza8gCotN6X84Q~HBGh-B5WC8~4zdN3yA-f7Jk4-InIixhl3QMdvUfJOtk0Pew3Cfjsj4wwHrGEXzTU0eQnzOAdYUBFn~~UaM3G3Fq6OZxGNSyMva7qlbORGwsk4IC~x5Jt7LV6dfLx524Ys5tuP~Wd-A__&Key-Pair-Id=APKAJLOHF5GGSLRBV4ZA[dead link]
  4. Carbonell, Ana María (1999). "From Llorona to Gritona: Coatlicue in Feminist Tales by Viramontes and Cisneros". MELUS 24 (2): 53–74. doi:10.2307/467699 . ISSN 0163-755X . https://www.jstor.org/stable/467699.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 (1997) Encyclopedia of Mexico : history, society & culture, Michael S. Werner, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. ISBN 1-884964-31-1. OCLC 37925478. 
  6. Romero, Rolando (2005). Feminism, nation and myth: La Malinche. Houston, Tex.: Arte Público Press. ISBN 978-1-61192-042-0. OCLC 607766319. 
  7. Hanson, Victor Davis (2007-12-18). Carnage and Culture: Landmark Battles in the Rise to Western Power (in en). Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-307-42518-8. 
  8. Cypess, Sandra Messinger (1991). La Malinche in Mexican literature from history to myth, 1st ed, Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-75131-1. OCLC 23693940. 
  9. Norget, Kristin (2006). Days of death, days of life : ritual in the popular culture of Oaxaca. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-51014-1. OCLC 808126210. 
  10. Radford, Benjamin (2014). Mysterious New Mexico : miracles, magic, and monsters in the land of enchantment, First edition. ISBN 978-0-8263-5450-1. OCLC 879552737. 
  11. (2006) Folklore : in all of us, in all we do, Internet Archive, Denton, Tex. : University of North Texas Press. ISBN 978-1-57441-223-9. 
  12. Romero, Rolando (2005). Feminism, nation and myth: La Malinche. Houston, Tex.: Arte Público Press. ISBN 978-1-61192-042-0. OCLC 607766319. 
  13. Carpio, Manuel (1876). Poesias del Sr. Dr. Don Manuel Carpio con su biografia escrita. Mexico: La Enseñanza. 
  14. Ibarra, Enrique Ajuria (2014), Piatti-Farnell, Lorna; Beville, Maria, eds., "Ghosting the Nation: La Llorona, Popular Culture, and the Spectral Anxiety of Mexican Identity", The Gothic and the Everyday: Living Gothic, The Palgrave Gothic Series (in English) (Palgrave Macmillan UK): 131–151, ISBN 978-1-137-40664-4, doi:10.1057/9781137406644_8, retrieved 2021-04-07 
  15. Coerver, Don M. (2004). Mexico: An Encyclopedia of Contemporary Culture and History (in en). ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-132-8. 
  16. R. J. Marquez (2019-11-01). Mysterious tales behind La Llorona, Island of the Dolls in Mexico City (en). KSAT. Iliwekwa mnamo 2021-04-07.
  17. Winnie Lee (2019-10-30). How Mexico's Most Sorrowful Spirit Became a Cultural Phenomenon (en). Atlas Obscura. Iliwekwa mnamo 2021-04-07.
  18. Leddy, Betty (1988). "La Llorona in Southern Arizona" (PDF). Perspectives in Mexican American Studies. q: 9–16.
  19. Raheem, N.; Archambault, S.; Arellano, E.; Gonzales, M.; Kopp, D.; Rivera, J.; Guldan, S.; Boykin, K. et al. (2015). "A framework for assessing ecosystem services in acequia irrigation communities of the Upper Río Grande watershed" (in en). WIREs Water 2 (5): 559–575. doi:10.1002/wat2.1091 . ISSN 2049-1948 . https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/wat2.1091.
  20. Blackburn, Thomas C. (1975). December's Child: A Book of Chumash Oral Narratives (in en). University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-02930-9. 
  21. Franco, Mercedes (2007). Diccionario de fantasmas, misterios y leyendas de Venezuela (in es). El Nacional. ISBN 978-980-388-390-4. 
  22. 22.0 22.1 Dinneen, Mark (2001). Culture and Customs of Venezuela (in en). Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-30639-6. 
  23. Peón, Ramón (1935-07-19), La llorona, Ramón Pereda, Virginia Zurí, Carlos Orellana, Adriana Lamar, Eco Films, retrieved 2021-04-07 
  24. Cardona, René (1960-11-17), La Llorona, María Elena Marqués, Eduardo Fajardo, Luz María Aguilar, Carlos López Moctezuma, Producciones Bueno, retrieved 2021-04-07 
  25. Baledón, Rafael (1963-08-15), La maldición de la Llorona, Rosita Arenas, Abel Salazar, Rita Macedo, Carlos López Moctezuma, Cinematográfica ABSA, retrieved 2021-04-07 
  26. Km 31-2 (2016) (in English), retrieved 2021-04-07 
  27. https://web.archive.org/web/20100621230341/http://filmeweb.net/magazine.asp?id=423
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  29. You must specify title = and url = when using {{cite web}}.. www.amazon.com. Iliwekwa mnamo 2021-04-07.
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  31. Williams, Benjamin (2007-03-02), J-ok'el, Tom Parker, Ana Patricia Rojo, Dee Wallace, Jesús Ochoa, Out of Light Entertainment, retrieved 2021-04-07 
  32. ‎La Leyenda de la Llorona on iTunes (in es-mx), retrieved 2021-04-07 
  33. Chaves, Michael (2019-04-11), The Curse of La Llorona, Linda Cardellini, Raymond Cruz, Patricia Velasquez, Marisol Ramirez, New Line Cinema, Atomic Monster, retrieved 2021-04-07 
  34. Mike Fleming Jr, Mike Fleming Jr (2019-08-13). Toronto Adds ‘The Aeronauts,’ ‘Mosul,’ ‘Seberg,’ & More To Festival Slate (en-US). Deadline. Iliwekwa mnamo 2021-04-07.
  35. https://www.dramaticpublishing.com/media/pdf/excerpts/exUnconqueredSpiritsU22.pdf
  36. Facebook, Twitter, Show more sharing options, Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn (1995-05-05). The Tears of Oppression : Josefina Lopez bases her play, 'Unconquered Spirits,' on the 'Crying Woman' legend. But in the end, her characters' fighting spirit prevails. (en-US). Los Angeles Times. Iliwekwa mnamo 2021-04-07.
  37. https://alaarajilearninghub.weebly.com/uploads/8/8/1/1/88113240/house_of_the_scorpion_-_nancy_farmer_copy.pdf
  38. Díaz, Jaquira (2019). Ordinary girls: a memoir (in English). ISBN 978-1-61620-913-1. OCLC 1090696817. 
  39. Andrés Henestrosa: el hombre que dispersó sus sombras - La Jornada. www.jornada.com.mx. Iliwekwa mnamo 2021-04-07.
  40. Facebook, Twitter, Show more sharing options, Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn (2012-08-06). Defiant singer was a cultural force in Mexico (en-US). Los Angeles Times. Iliwekwa mnamo 2021-04-07.
  41. https://web.archive.org/web/20160304030830/http://www.joanbaez.com/Discography/GALV.html
  42. Wise Latina (en-US). Guernica (2009-10-01). Iliwekwa mnamo 2021-04-07.
  43. Nutter, David (2005-09-13), Pilot, Jared Padalecki, Jensen Ackles, Sarah Shahi, Adrianne Palicki, Warner Bros. Television, Wonderland Sound and Vision, retrieved 2021-04-07 
  44. Dale, Holly (2012-10-26), La Llorona, David Giuntoli, Russell Hornsby, Elizabeth Tulloch, Silas Weir Mitchell, GK Productions, Hazy Mills Productions, Universal Television, retrieved 2021-04-07 

Bibliografia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Perez, Domino Renee, There Was a Woman: La Llorona from Folklore to Popular Culture
  • Mathews, Holly F. 1992. The directive force of morality tales in a Mexican community. In Human motives and cultural models, edited by R.G.D'Andrade and C. Strauss, 127-62. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Norget, Kristin (2006). Days of Death, Days of Life: Ritual in the Popular Culture of Oaxaca. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-13688-9. 
  • Ray John de Aragon, The Legend of La Llorona, Sunstone Press, 2006.
  • Belinda Vasquez Garcia, The Witch Narratives Reincarnation, Magic Prose Publishing, 2012.
  • Werner, Michael S. (1997). Encyclopedia of Mexico: History, Society & Culture - Vol. 1. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn. ISBN 1-884964-31-1. martin