Uafrocentriki

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Uafroncentriki (kutoka Kiingereza: Afrocentrism vilevile huitwa Afrocentricity) ni itikadi ya kitamaduni au mtazamo wa kilimwengu ambao hasa ulitolewa na wasomi Weusi wanaoishi nchini Marekani na imejikita katika kuelezea historia ya mtu mweusi Ni majibu yaliyotokana na toleo la ulimwengu la (Eurocentriki) kuhusu Watu wa Afrika na michango yao kihistoria na vilevile katika kutaka kujua asili yao na itikadi zao. Afrocentricity inajishughulisha hasa elimu ya kujitambua kusimama kama wakala wa Afrika na itakadi nzima ya Pan-African na utamaduni wake, falsafa, na historia.[1][2] Vilevile Afrocentric hutazamiwa kama mawazo ya Wasomi wa Kiafrika na kwingineko ambao walisoma huko Ulaya. Wengi wao waliibuka katika karne ya 20 hasa kipindi kile cha harakati za kupigania uhuru na ukoloni barani Afrika. Kwa mujibu wa wasomi hao, sababu zilizopelekea Unyang'anyi wa Afrika ni kwa sababu ya mapinduzi ya viwanda ambayo yalichukua nafasi barani Ulaya katika karne ya 19. Mapinduzi hayo yalikuwa na changamoto mbalimbali kwa mataifa ya Ulaya. Ili kuondoa changamoto hizo, wakaona bora waje Afrika - jambo ambalo lilipelekea kuigawa Afrika kwa mataifa yenye nguvu ya Ulaya.

Matatizo ya mapinduzi ya viwanda[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Yafuatayo ni matatizo au nadharia kulingana na wasomi hao wa Kiafrika walioanisha na kuaminika ndio hasa yaliyowafanya Wazungu waje Afrika:

Uzalishaji wa ziada[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Uzalishaji wa kupita kiasi ulisababishwa na matumizi ya mashine badala ya binadamu. Utumiaji wa uliongeza uzalishaji na kupelekea upungufu wa malighafi barani Ulaya. Hivyo basi walilazimika kuja Afrika ili kutatua tatizo hilo la malighafi. Hili lilipeleka unyang'anyi wa Afrika.

Uteja duni[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Baada ya mapinduzi ya viwanda, kulikuwa na upungufu wa watu kununua bidhaa za viwandani. Jambo hili lilifanya waje Afrika kutafuta masoko. Vilevile baada ya mapinduzi ya viwanda, sehemu kubwa ya watu walikuwa hawana ajira hivyo upatikanaji wa pesa ukawa mdogo mno, wapi pa kuuzia bidhaa zao, Afrika.

Jisomee[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • The Case against Afrocentrism, Tunde Adeleke (ISBN 1604732938)
  • Afrotopia: The Roots of African American Popular History (Cambridge Studies in American Literature and Culture), Wilson Jeremiah Moses (978-0521479417)

Tazama pia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Falsafa ya Afrika
  • Mwamko wa Afrika

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. Asante on Afrocentricity.
  2. Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African-American Volume 1., p. 111 by Henry Louis Gates (Editor), Kwame Anthony Appiah (Editor) Oxford University Press. 2005.

Fasihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Msingi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Ani, Marimba (1994). Yurugu: An African-centered Critique of European Thought and Behavior. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press. ISBN 0-86543-248-1. Yurugu: An African-centered Critique of European Thought and Behavior. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press. ISBN 0-86543-248-1. 
  • Asante, Molefi Kete (1988). Afrocentricity, rev., Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press. ISBN 0-86543-067-5. Afrocentricity (rev. ed.). Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press. ISBN 0-86543-067-5. 
  • Asante, Molefi Kete (1990). Kemet, Afrocentricity, and Knowledge. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press. ISBN 0-86543-188-4. Kemet, Afrocentricity, and Knowledge. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press. ISBN 0-86543-188-4. 
  • Asante, Molefi Kete (1998). The Afrocentric Idea. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. ISBN 1-56639-594-1. The Afrocentric Idea. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. ISBN 1-56639-594-1. 
  • Crawford, Clinton (1996). Recasting Ancient Egypt In The African Context: Toward A Model Curriculum Using Art And Language. Trenton, New Jersey: Africa World Press. 
  • Houston, Drusilla Dunjee (1926). Wonderful Ethiopians of the Ancient Cushite Empire. Oklahoma: Universal Publishing Company.  online copy
  • Karenga, Maulana (1993). Introduction to Black Studies, 2nd, Los Angeles: University of Sankore Press. ISBN 0-943412-16-1. Introduction to Black Studies (2nd ed.). Los Angeles: University of Sankore Press. ISBN 0-943412-16-1. 
  • Kershaw, Terry (1992). "Afrocentrism and the Afrocentric method." Western Journal of Black Studies. 16. pp. 160–168.""Afrocentrism and the Afrocentric method." Western Journal of Black Studies" 16 (3): 160–168. 

Secondari[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Bailey, Randall C. (editor) (2003). Yet with a steady beat: contemporary U.S. Afrocentric biblical interpretation. Society of Biblical Literature. Yet with a steady beat: contemporary U.S. Afrocentric biblical interpretation. Society of Biblical Literature. 
  • Berlinerblau, Jacques (1999). Heresy in the University: The Black Athena Controversy and the Responsibilities of American Intellectuals. Rutgers University Press. Heresy in the University: The Black Athena Controversy and the Responsibilities of American Intellectuals. Rutgers University Press. 
  • Binder, Amy J. (2002). Contentious curricula: Afrocentrism and creationism in American public schools. Princeton University Press. Contentious curricula: Afrocentrism and creationism in American public schools. Princeton University Press.  External link in |publisher= (help)
  • Browder, Anthony T. (1992). Nile Valley Contributions To Civilization: Exploding the Myths, Volume 1. Washington, DC: Institute of Karmic Guidance. Nile Valley Contributions To Civilization: Exploding the Myths, Volume 1. Washington, DC: Institute of Karmic Guidance. 
  • Henderson, Errol Anthony (1995). Afrocentrism and world politics: towards a new paradigm. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger. Afrocentrism and world politics: towards a new paradigm. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger. 
  • Henke, Holger and Fred Reno (editors) (2003). Modern political culture in the Caribbean. University of the West Indies Press. Modern political culture in the Caribbean. University of the West Indies Press. 
  • Howe, Stephen (1998). Afrocentrism: mythical pasts and imagined homes. London: Verso. Afrocentrism: mythical pasts and imagined homes. London: Verso. 
  • Konstan, David. "Inventing Ancient Greece: [Review article]", History and Theory, Vol. 36, No. 2. (May, 1997), pp. 261–269.
  • Lefkowitz, Mary (1996). History Lesson: A Race Odyssey. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-12659-X. ISBN 0-300-12659-X. 
  • Lefkowitz, Mary (1996). Not Out of Africa: How Afrocentrism Became an Excuse to Teach Myth as History. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-09837-1. ISBN 0-465-09837-1. 
  • Lefkowitz, Mary R. and Guy MacLean Rogers (editors) (1996). Black Athena Revisited. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-4555-8. Black Athena Revisited. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-4555-8. 
  • Moses, Wilson Jeremiah (1998). Afrotopia: the roots of African American popular history. Cambridge University Press. Afrotopia: the roots of African American popular history. Cambridge University Press. 
  • Sniderman, Paul M. and Thomas Piazza (2002). Black pride and black prejudice. Princeton University Press. Black pride and black prejudice. Princeton University Press. 
  • Walker, Clarence E. (2000). We Can't Go Home Again: An Argument about Afrocentrism. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509571-5. We Can't Go Home Again: An Argument about Afrocentrism. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509571-5. 

Viungo vya Nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]