Cleveland Browns

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Cleveland Browns ni timu ya kitaalam ya football iliyoko Cleveland, Ohio, nchini Marekani. Wanashindana kwenye Ligi ya Football ya Kitaifa (NFL) na wamepewa jina la mkufunzi na mwanzilishi wao wa kwanza, Paul Brown.[1]

Timu ya Browns hucheza michezo yao ya nyumbani kwenye Uwanja wa First Energy[2] na ofisi zao za ushirika ziko Barea, Ohio, kitongoji cha Cleveland.[3] Rangi rasmi ya Browns ni kahawia, machungwa, na nyeupe. Ndio timu pekee kwenye Ligi ya Football ya Kitaifa ambayo haina nembo kwenye helmeti zao.[4][5]

Wameshinda mashindano manne ya Shirikisho la Football la Amerika (AAFC) na manne ya NFL, lakini hawajawahi kushinda au kwenda Super Bowl, ambayo iliundwa baada ya ushindi wa mwisho wa Browns mwaka 1964.[6]  Watu kumi na sita ambao walichezea Browns wameingizwa kwenye Jumba la Umaarufu la Football. Jim Brown, Running Back ambaye alichezea Browns kutoka 1957-1965, anachukuliwa na wanahistoria wengi wa football kuwa mchezaji bora wa mpira wa miguu wakati wote.[7]

Historia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Browns wakifunga dhidi ya Pittsburgh Steelers mwaka 2019

Timu ya Browns ilianzishwa mwaka 1945 na Paul Brown na mfanyabiashara wa ndani Arthur B. McBride. Timu hiyo ilikuwa mwanachama wa kwanza wa AAFC. Browns walitawala AAFC, wakishinda michezo 47 na kupoteza michezo mitatu.[8] Wakati AAFC ilimalizika mwaka 1949, Browns walijiunga na NFL pamoja na San Francisco 49ers na Baltimore Colts. Browns walishinda taji hilo katika msimu wao wa kwanza wa NFL, na walishinda nyara za ziada mnamo 1954, 1955, na 1964. Browns walicheza katika michezo kumi mfululizo ya ubingwa (kutoka 1946 hadi 1955) katika misimu yao kumi ya kwanza kabisa. Ndio timu pekee ya kufanya hivi katika mchezo wowote wa Amerika Kaskazini.

Katika miaka ya 1970, Browns walijitahidi kupata mafanikio, lakini walifanikiwa tena mwaka 1979 na 1980, walipopewa jina la utani "Kardiac Kids" kwa sababu ya idadi kubwa ya michezo ya kusisimua waliyocheza.[9] Walakini, watoto hawa wa Kardiac hawakushinda michezo yoyote mchuano. Mwaka 1986, 1987, na 1989, Browns walifanikiwa kucheza kwenye Ubingwaya AFC, ikimaanisha walihitaji ushindi mmoja tu ili kufanya Super Bowl. Walakini, wao katika michezo yote mitatu walipoteza kwa Denver Broncos. Hasara mbili kati ya hizi zina majina ya utani ("The Drive" mwaka 1985 na "The Fumble" mwaka 1986), na ni chanzo cha maumivu kwa mashabiki wengi wa Brown.[10]

Uwanja ya First Energy mwaka 2008

Mnamo miaka ya 1990 Browns waliendelea kushinda michezo kadhaa, lakini bado hawakuweza kufika Super Bowl. Kuanzia 1965 hadi 1995, Browns walistahili mashindano ya mchuano ya NFL mara kumi na nne, lakini hawakushinda mashindano yoyote haya. Mnamo mwaka 1995, mmiliki wa Browns Art Modell - ambaye alinunua Browns mwaka 1961 - alitangaza mpango wake wa kuhamisha Browns kutoka Cleveland kwenda Baltimore.[11] Baada ya jiji la Cleveland kutishia hatua za kisheria, NFL, Cleveland, na Modell walifikia makubaliano mwaka 1996 ambayo iliruhusu Modell kuhamisha Browns kwenda Baltimore na kuanzisha timu mpya na wachezaji wa zamani wa Brown, iitwayo Baltimore Ravens. Kwa kuongezea, jiji la Cleveland liliruhusiwa kubakiza mali miliki ya Browns, na vile vile jina la "Browns", rangi, nembo, vifaa, na historia ya timu. Kuanzia 1996 hadi 1999, NFL ilizingatia Franchise ya Cleveland Browns imesimamishwa.[12] Mnamo 1998, Brown "wapya" walitangazwa kama timu ya upanuzi, na wakaanza kucheza tena kama Cleveland Browns mwaka 1999.

Tangu kuanza tena shughuli mnamo mwaka 1999, Browns wamejitahidi kupata mafanikio. Walikuwa na misimu mitatu tu ya kushinda (2002, 2007, na 2020), moja mashindano ya mchuano kuonekana (2002), na hawajashinda michezo yoyote ya mashindano ya mchuano, ambayo yote ni mabaya zaidi katika NFL. Wamekuwa na makocha wakuu zaidi (kumi na wawili tangu 1999) na Quarterbacks (30 tangu 1999) kuliko timu nyingine yoyote katika NFL tangu 1999.[13][14]

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. Paul Brown - Ohio History Central. ohiohistorycentral.org. Iliwekwa mnamo 2020-12-14.
  2. FirstEnergy Stadium, Cleveland Browns football stadium - Stadiums of Pro Football (en-US). Stadiums of Pro Football - Your Ticket to Every NFL Football Stadium. Iliwekwa mnamo 2020-12-14.
  3. Mary Kilpatrick, clevel, .com (2019-06-17). Cleveland Browns headquarters to remain in Berea through 2039 (en). cleveland. Iliwekwa mnamo 2020-12-14.
  4. Browns' logos sneak preview of what's to come (en-US). www.clevelandbrowns.com. Iliwekwa mnamo 2020-12-14.
  5. Putting to rest 5 historic myths about the Browns’ uniforms (en-US). www.clevelandbrowns.com. Iliwekwa mnamo 2020-12-14.
  6. The American Historian: The History of the Super Bowl. tah.oah.org. Iliwekwa mnamo 2020-12-14.
  7. Jerry Rice, Tom Brady and Lawrence Taylor top our list of the 100 greatest NFL players of all time (en-US). USA TODAY. Iliwekwa mnamo 2020-12-14.
  8. Cleveland Browns Team Encyclopedia (en). Pro-Football-Reference.com. Iliwekwa mnamo 2020-12-14.
  9. The Cleveland Browns "Kardiac Kids" (Complete History) (en-US). Browns Nation (2020-06-21). Iliwekwa mnamo 2020-12-14.
  10. Branson Wright, The Plain Dealer (2017-04-30). The Drive, The Fumble dashed Browns' Super Bowl dreams (en). cleveland. Iliwekwa mnamo 2020-12-14.
  11. Branson Wright, The Plain Dealer (2017-04-30). Browns move to Baltimore left city stunned, angered (en). cleveland. Iliwekwa mnamo 2020-12-14.
  12. NFL.COM Browns News. web.archive.org (1996-11-12). Iliwekwa mnamo 2020-12-14.
  13. Cleveland Browns Starting Quarterbacks Since 1999 (en-US). Browns Nation (2019-10-18). Iliwekwa mnamo 2020-12-14.
  14. Cork Gaines. CHART: Number Of Coaches Hired By NFL Teams Since Bill Belichick Was Hired Is Disturbing. Business Insider. Iliwekwa mnamo 2020-12-14.
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