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Beowulf

Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru

Beowulf ni tendi mashuhuri ya fasihi ya Kiingereza cha Kale. Kitabu kilichopo hadi sasa kiliandikwa mnamo 975-1025 BK, lakini inawezekana tendi ilitungwa mapema zaidi.

Hadithi zake[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Hilo shairi refu la aya 3182 linasimulia habari za kijana Beowulf anayetokea Uswidi pamoja na marafiki 14 kwa kusudi la kumsaidia mfalme wa Denmark Hrodgar. Hrodgar anateswa na Grendel ambaye ni zimwi mbaya anayemeza watu. Beowulf anamshinda Grendel na mama yake na kupokea zawadi nyingi kutoka Hrodgar.

Kuna sehemu ya pili ya shairi ambamo Beowulf mzee ni mfalme mwenyewe. Anapaswa kushindana na joka anayeharibu nchi. Safari hii Beowulf anauawa akitetea nchi yake kwa sababu kati ya wafuasi wake ni mmoja tu anayemsaidia.

Mfano wa lugha yake[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Aya Kiingereza cha Kale Kiingereza cha Kisasa (karne ya 19)
[1] Hwæt! We Gardena in geardagum, Lo! We of Spear-Danes in days of yore,
[2] þeodcyninga, þrym gefrunon of the fame of the kings, have heard
[3] hu ða æþelingas ellen fremedon. How those nobles did great deeds
[4] Oft Scyld Scefing sceaþena þreatum, Often Scyld Scefing, from the army of his enemies,
[5] monegum mægþum, meodosetla ofteah, from many warriors, took the mead-benches
[6] egsode eorlas. Syððan ærest wearð terrified the nobles. After he was first
[7] feasceaft funden, he þæs frofre gebad discovered, a foundling, he gained a consolation
[8] weox under wolcnum, weorðmyndum þah, waxed under the heavens, prospered in glory,
[9] oðþæt him æghwylc þara ymbsittendra until eventually everyone in surrounding tribes,
[10] ofer hronrade hyran scolde, over the whale-road, had to obey
[11] gomban gyldan. Þæt wæs god cyning! and yield to him. He was a good king!

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Anderson, Sarah, mhr. (2004), Introduction and historical/cultural contexts, Longman Cultural, ISBN 0-321-10720-9.
  • Andersson, Theodore M. (1998), "Sources and Analogues", katika Bjork, Robert E.; Niles, John D. (whr.), A Beowulf Handbook, Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, ku. 125–48, ISBN 9780803261501
  • Carruthers, Leo (2011), "Rewriting Genres: Beowulf as Epic Romance", katika Carruthers, Leo; Chai-Elsholz, Raeleen; Silec, Tatjana (whr.), Palimpsests and the Literary Imagination of Medieval England, New York: Palgrave, ku. 139–55, ISBN 9780230100268
  • Chadwick, Nora K. (1959), "The Monsters and Beowulf", katika Clemoes, Peter (mhr.), The Anglo-Saxons: Studies in Some Aspects of Their History, London: Bowes & Bowes, ku. 171–203, OCLC 213750799
  • Chance, Jane (1990), "The Structural Unity of Beowulf: The Problem of Grendel's Mother", katika Damico, Helen; Olsen, Alexandra Hennessey (whr.), New Readings on Women in Old English Literature, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, ku. 248–61.
  • Chickering, Howell D. (2002), "Beowulf and 'Heaneywulf': review", The Kenyon Review, new, 24 (1): 160–78.
  • Cook, Albert Stanburrough (1926), Beowulfian and Odyssean Voyages, New Haven: Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences
  • Creed, Robert P (1990), Reconstructing the Rhythm of Beowulf, University of Missouri, ISBN 9780826207227.
  • Damico, Helen (1984), Beowulf's Wealhtheow and the Valkyrie Tradition, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, ISBN 9780299095000.
  • Tolkien, J. R. R. (2002), Drout, Michael D. C. (mhr.), Beowulf and the Critics, Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies
  • Greenfield, Stanley (1989), Hero and Exile, London: Hambleton Press.
  • "Anthropological and Cultural Approaches to Beowulf", The Heroic Age (5), Summer–Fall 2001{{citation}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link).
  • Kiernan, Kevin (1996), Beowulf and the Beowulf Manuscript, Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, ISBN 0-472-08412-7.
  • Jaillant, Lise. "A Fine Old Tale of Adventure: Beowulf Told to the Children of the English Race,1898-1908." Children’s Literature Association Quarterly 38.4 (2013): 399-419
  • Lerer, Seth (Jan 2012), "Dragging the Monster from the Closet: Beowulf and the English Literary Tradition", Ragazine, ilihifadhiwa kwenye nyaraka kutoka chanzo mnamo 2016-11-28, iliwekwa mnamo 2017-02-19 {{citation}}: Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link).
  • Lord, Albert (1960), The Singer of Tales, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Mitchell, Bruce; Robinson, Fred C (1998), Beowulf: an edition with relevant shorter texts, Oxford, UK; Malden, MA: Blackwell.
  • Neidorf, Leonard, mhr. (2014), The Dating of Beowulf: A Reassessment, Cambridge: DS Brewer, ISBN 978-1-84384-387-0.
  • Nicholson, Lewis E, mhr. (1963), An Anthology of Beowulf Criticism, Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, ISBN 0-268-00006-9.
  • North, Richard (2006), "The King's Soul: Danish Mythology in Beowulf", Origins of Beowulf: From Vergil to Wiglaf, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Orchard, Andy (2003a), A Critical Companion to Beowulf, Cambridge: DS Brewer
  • ——— (2003b), Pride and Prodigies: Studies in the Monsters of the Beowulf-Manuscript, Toronto: University of Toronto Press
  • Robinson, Fred C (2001), The Cambridge Companion to Beowulf, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, uk. 143
  • Schulman, Jana K; Szarmach, Paul E (2012), "Introduction", katika Schulman, Jana K; Szarmach, Paul E (whr.), Beowulf and Kalamazoo, Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute, ku. 1–11, ISBN 978-1-58044-152-0.
  • Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel (1997) [1958]. Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics and other essays. London: Harper Collins. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)
  • Trask, Richard M (1998), "Preface to the Poems: Beowulf and Judith: Epic Companions", Beowulf and Judith: Two Heroes, Lanham, MD: University Press of America, ku. 11–14.
  • Zumthor, Paul (1984), "The Text and the Voice", New Literary History, 16, Englehardt, Marilyn C transl.

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