Beowulf

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Beowulf Cotton MS Vitellius A XV f. 132r.jpg

Beowulf ni tendi mashuhuri ya fasihi ya Kiingereza cha Kale. Kitabu kilichopo hadi sasa kiliandikwa mnamo 975-1025 BK, lakini inawezekana tendi ilitungwa mapema zaidi.

Hadithi zake[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Hilo shairi refu la aya 3182 linasimulia habari za kijana Beowulf anayetokea Uswidi pamoja na marafiki 14 kwa kusudi la kumsaidia mfalme wa Denmark Hrodgar. Hrodgar anateswa na Grendel ambaye ni zimwi mbaya anayemeza watu. Beowulf anamshinda Grendel na mama yake na kupokea zawadi nyingi kutoka Hrodgar.

Kuna sehemu ya pili ya shairi ambamo Beowulf mzee ni mfalme mwenyewe. Anapaswa kushindana na joka anayeharibu nchi. Safari hii Beowulf anauawa akitetea nchi yake kwa sababu kati ya wafuasi wake ni mmoja tu anayemsaidia.

Mfano wa lugha yake[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Aya Kiingereza cha Kale Kiingereza cha Kisasa (karne ya 19)
[1] Hwæt! We Gardena in geardagum, Lo! We of Spear-Danes in days of yore,
[2] þeodcyninga, þrym gefrunon of the fame of the kings, have heard
[3] hu ða æþelingas ellen fremedon. How those nobles did great deeds
[4] Oft Scyld Scefing sceaþena þreatum, Often Scyld Scefing, from the army of his enemies,
[5] monegum mægþum, meodosetla ofteah, from many warriors, took the mead-benches
[6] egsode eorlas. Syððan ærest wearð terrified the nobles. After he was first
[7] feasceaft funden, he þæs frofre gebad discovered, a foundling, he gained a consolation
[8] weox under wolcnum, weorðmyndum þah, waxed under the heavens, prospered in glory,
[9] oðþæt him æghwylc þara ymbsittendra until eventually everyone in surrounding tribes,
[10] ofer hronrade hyran scolde, over the whale-road, had to obey
[11] gomban gyldan. Þæt wæs god cyning! and yield to him. He was a good king!

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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