Ustaarabu wa magharibi

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Plato, ambaye pamoja na Sokrates na Aristotle, aliweka msingi wa falsafa ya magharibi.
Mchoro maarufu wa Leonardo da Vinci unaoonyesha umuhimu wa binadamu katika mtazamo wa magharibi kuanzia Renaissance.
The Beatles, bendi lililouza albamu nyingi kuliko yote, linaendelea kuathiri magharibi si upande wa muziki tu.
Aina kuu za ustarabu baada ya mwaka 1990 kadiri ya Huntington (ule wa magharibi una rangi ya buluu iliyokolea).

Ustaarabu wa magharibi ni utamaduni wenye taratibu za kijamii, maadili, desturi, sheria, falsafa, imani, siasa, sanaa na teknolojia maalumu ambavyo asili yake ni Ulaya hata kame vimezidi kustawi sehemu nyingine za dunia ambazo historia yake ilikuwa na uhusiano wa pekee na bara hilo.

Kwa kiasi kikubwa ni urithi wa Ugiriki wa Kale, Roma wa Kale, Uyahudi,[1] na utamaduni wa makabila mengine[2][3]lakini hasa wa Ukristo na madhehebu yake ya kwanza, Kanisa Katoliki,[4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11] pamoja na Makanisa ya Kiorthodoksi[12][13].

Baada ya Matengenezo ya Kiprotestanti, athari yake imekuwa kubwa pia, hasa Ulaya Kaskazini na makoloni yake, kama yale yaliyounda Marekani, ambayo katika karne ya 20 imeshika uongozi wa dunia na kuzidi kusambaza ustarabu huo.[14][15]

Tabia yake ya msingi ni kujali na kustawisha akili badala ya kutegemea visasili na mapokeo. Ilikuwa hivyo kuanzia falsafa ya Shule ya Athene, ikaendelea baada ya uenezi wa Ukristo kupitia Teolojia ya Shule, Renaissance, Mapinduzi ya Kisayansi hadi Falsafa ya Mwangaza. Hiyo ilisaidia kutambua tunu kama haki za binadamu, usawa na demokrasia. [16]

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. Role of Judaism in Western culture and civilization, "Judaism has played a significant role in the development of Western culture because of its unique relationship with Christianity, the dominant religious force in the West". Judaism at Encyclopedia Britannica
  2. Kim Ann Zimmermann, 2012, "What is Culture? Definition of Culture," LiveScience, July 9, 2012, see [1], accessed on 8 December 2014.
  3. Anon. (Western Culture Global), 2009, "Western Culture Knowledge Center: What is Western Culture?," see [2], accessed on 8 December 2014.Kigezo:Better source
  4. J. Spielvogel, Jackson (2016). Western Civilization: A Brief History, Volume I: To 1715, Cengage Learning, 156. ISBN 9781305633476. 
  5. Neill, Thomas Patrick (1957). Readings in the History of Western Civilization, Volume 2, Newman Press, 224. 
  6. O'Collins, Gerald (2003). Catholicism: The Story of Catholic Christianity, Oxford University Press, v (preface). ISBN 978-0-19-925995-3. 
  7. Roman Catholicism, "Roman Catholicism, Christian church that has been the decisive spiritual force in the history of Western civilization". Encyclopedia Britannica
  8. Caltron J.H Hayas, Christianity and Western Civilization (1953),Stanford University Press, p. 2: That certain distinctive features of our Western civilization—the civilization of western Europe and of America—have been shaped chiefly by Judaeo – Graeco – Christianity, Catholic and Protestant.
  9. Jose Orlandis, 1993, "A Short History of the Catholic Church," 2nd edn. (Michael Adams, Trans.), Dublin:Four Courts Press, ISBN 1851821252, preface, see [3], accessed 8 December 2014. p. (preface)
  10. Thomas E. Woods and Antonio Canizares, 2012, "How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization," Reprint edn., Washington, D.C.: Regnery History, ISBN 1596983280, PG. NOS., see accessed 8 December 2014. p. 1: "Western civilization owes far more to Catholic Church than most people—Catholic included—often realize. The Church in fact built Western civilization."
  11. Marvin Perry (1 January 2012). Western Civilization: A Brief History, Volume I: To 1789. Cengage Learning, 33–. ISBN 1-111-83720-1. 
  12. H. McNeill, William (2010). History of Western Civilization: A Handbook, University of Chicago Press, 204. ISBN 0226561623. 
  13. Faltin, Lucia (2007). The Religious Roots of Contemporary European Identity, A&C Black, 83. ISBN 9780826494825. 
  14. Toynbee, Arnold (1947). A Study of History: Abridgement of, Volumes 1-6, Oxford University Press, 155. ISBN 9780199826698. 
  15. Dawson, Christopher (1961). Crisis in Western Education, reprint, 108. ISBN 9780813216836. 
  16. Jonathan Daly (19 December 2013). The Rise of Western Power: A Comparative History of Western Civilization. A&C Black, 7–9. ISBN 978-1-4411-1851-6. 

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