Toussaint Louverture

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Jenerali Toussaint Louverture.

Toussaint Louverture (jina kamili: François-Dominique Toussaint Louverture; Cap-Haitien, 1743 - La-Cluse-et-Mijoux, Ufaransa 7 Aprili 1803) alikuwa askari na mwanasiasa nchini Haiti.

Alikuwa kiongozi wa Mapinduzi ya Haiti na mkombozi nchini Haiti. Ni shujaa wake mkuu hadi sasa. Aliongoza Haiti kupata Uhuru mwaka 1804 ijapo Wafaransa walimwua kabla ya Uhuru.

Wendo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

1791 alikuwa mtu mweusi wa kwanza kupigana na ukoloni.

1796-1797 aliongoza Tume ya Tatu na Wafaransa

1798 alitia sahini mkataba na Uingereza na Marekani

1801 aliandika katiba mpya kwa Haiti

1802 alishikwa gerezani nchini Ufaransa

1803 alikufa gerezani mjini La-Cluse-et-Mijoux

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Madison Smartt Bell. "Toussaint Louverture: A Biography" (New York: Pantheon, 2007).
  • David Brion Davis. "He changed the New World" Review of M.S. Bell's "Toussaint Louverture: A Biography", The New York Review of Books, May 31, 2007, pp. 54-58.
  • Laurent Dubois and John D. Garrigus. Slave Revolution in the Caribbean, 1789-1804: A Brief History with Documents (2006)
  • Junius P. Rodriguez, ed. Encyclopedia of Slave Resistance and Rebellion. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2006.
  • Graham Gendall Norton - Toussaint Louverture, in History Today, April 2003.
  • Arthur L. Stinchcombe. Sugar Island Slavery in the Age of Enlightenment: The Political Economy of the Caribbean World (1995).
  • Ian Thomson. 'Bonjour Blanc: A Journey Through Haiti' (London, 1992). A colourful, picaresque, historically- and politically-engaged travelogue; regular asides on Louverture's career.
  • Martin Ros - The Night of Fire: The Black Napoleon and the Battle for Haiti (1991).
  • DuPuy, Alex. Haiti in the World Economy: Class, Race, and Underdevelopment since 1700 (1989).
  • Alfred N. Hunt. Haiti's Influence on Antebellum America: Slumbering Volcano in the Caribbean (1988).
  • Aimé Cesaire - Toussaint Louverture (Paris, 1981). Written by a prominent French thinker, this book is well written, well argued, and well researched.
  • Robert Heinl and Nancy Heinl - Written in Blood: The story of the Haitian people, 1492-1971 (1978). A bit awkward, but studded with quotations from original sources.
  • Thomas Ott - The Haitian Revolution: 1789-1804 (1973). Brief, but well-researched.
  • George F. Tyson, ed. - Great Lives Considered: Toussaint L'Ouverture (1973). A compilation, includes some of Toussaint's writings.
  • Ralph Korngold - Citizen Toussaint (1944, reissued 1979).
  • J. R. Beard - The Life of Toussaint L'Ouverture: The Negro Patriot of Hayti (1853). Still in print. A pro-Toussaint history written by an Englishman. ISBN 1-58742-010-4
  • J. R. Beard - Toussaint L'Ouverture: A Biography and Autobiography (1863). Out of print, but published online. Consists of the earlier "Life", supplemented by an autobiography of Toussaint written by himself.
  • Victor Schoelcher - Vie de Toussaint-Louverture (1889). A sympathetic biography by a French abolitionist, with good scholarship (for the time), and generous quotation from original sources, but entertaining and readable nonetheless. Important as a source for many other biographers (e.g. C.L.R. James).
  • F. J. Pamphile de Lacroix - La révolution d'Haïti (1819, reprinted 1995). Memoirs of one of the French generals involved in fighting Toussaint. Surprisingly, he esteemed his rival and wrote a long, well-documented, and generally highly regarded history of the conflict.
  • Toussaint L'Ouverture - The Haitian Revolution (New York: Verso, 2008). A collection of L'Ouverture's writings and speeches, with an introduction by Jean-Bertrand Aristide. ISBN 1-84467-261-1
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