Soweto

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Soweto.
Mtaa wa vibanda katika Soweto.
Nyumba alipokaa Nelson Mandela 1946 - 1962 pale Soweto, Vilakazi Street.

Soweto ni sehemu ya jiji la Johannesburg, Afrika Kusini.

Jina hilo ni kifupi cha Southwestern townships yaani "mapambizo ya kusini-magharibi". Hayo yalianzishwa wakati wa apartheid kama makazi ya Waafrika pekee, na kwa hiyo yalitazamwa kuwa "mapambizo meusi" ya Johannesburg.

Kati ya miaka 1983 na 2002 Soweto ilikuwa manisipaa ya pekee, baadaye imekuwa tena sehemu ya jiji la Johannesburg.

Wakati wa sensa ya mwaka 2008 idadi ya wakazi ilikuwa milioni 1.3 [1] na hii inalingana na theluthi moja ya wakazi wote wa jiji hilo.

Ndani ya Soweto kuna vitongoji mbalimbali, idadi inatajwa mara kuwa 29[2], mara 34[3]. Kati yake, vingine ni maeneo maskini sana, hata mitaa ya vibanda; vingine vina nyumba nzuri.

Soweto ilikuwa kitovu cha upinzani wa wanafunzi dhidi ya apartheid kwenye mwaka 1976.

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. Population of Soweto, South Africa.
  2. Soweto, tovuti ya saweb.co.za, iliangaliwa Septemba 2019
  3. Background to the study area: Soweto. University of Pretoria (2004). Iliwekwa mnamo 2009-11-16.

Kujisomea[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • (1998) Soweto: A History. South Africa: Maskew Miller Longman. ISBN 0-636-03033-4. 
  • (2001) Soweto, 16 June 1976. South Africa: Kwela Books. ISBN 978-0-7957-0132-0. 
  • Glaser, Clive (2000). Bo Tsotsi – The Youth Gangs of Soweto. United Kingdom: James Currey. ISBN 978-0-85255-640-5. 
  • Grinker, David (2014). Inside Soweto: Memoir of an Official 1960s-1980s. Johannesburg: Eastern Enterprises. ISBN 978-1-29186-599-8. 
  • Harrison, Philip, and Kirsten Harrison (2014) “Soweto: A Study in Socio-Spatial Differentiation.” In Philip Harrison, Graeme Gotz, Alison Todes, and Chris Wray (eds) Changing Space, Changing City: Johannesburg after Apartheid, Johannesburg: Wits University Press, pp 293–318. https://doi.org/10.18772/22014107656.19
  • Holland, Heidi (1995). Born in Soweto – Inside the Heart of South Africa. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-024446-5. 
  • Hopkins, Pat (1999). The Rocky Rioter Teargas Show. Cape Town: Zebra. ISBN 1-86872-342-9. 
  • (2007) Soweto – A South African Legend. Germany: Arnoldsche. ISBN 978-3-89790-013-4. 
  • Tessendorf (1989). Along the Road to Soweto: A Racial History of South Africa. Atheneum. ISBN 0-689-31401-9. 
  • French, Kevin John, James Mpanza and the Sofasonke Party in the development of local politic in Soweto, unpublished M.A. dissertation, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 1983.

Viungo vya Nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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