Kitakasa mikono

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Kitakasa mikono.

Kitakasa mikono (kwa Kiingereza: hand sanitizer) ni kiowevu au jeli inayotumika kupunguza pathojeni (viini viambukizavyo magonjwa) kwenye mikono.[1] Kitakasa mikono hugawiwa kwenye ngozi kwa kuchuana mikono. Kwa njia hiyo pathojeni zinazokaa kwenye ngozi ya mikono huuawa au kudhoofishwa kabisa. Ufanisi hutegemea aina ya dawa inayotumiwa ndani ya kitakasa na aina za pathojeni zinazolengwa, kama ni bakteria, virusi au fungi.

Aina nyingi za vitakasa mikono huwa na kiwango cha alikoholi kisichopungua asilimia 60. Ilhali alikoholi inasababisha ngozi kuwa kavu sana. mara nyingi dawa kama gliserini inaongezwa inayokinga ngozi.

Katika mazingira ya matibabu kitakasa mikono hupendelewa kuliko kunawa mikono kwa maji na sabuni. [2] [3]

Nje ya kliniki na hospitali kunawa mikono hupendelewa kwa ujumla.[4] [5]

Vitakasa kwenye msingi wa alikoholi kwa kawaida huwa na isopropanoli au ethanoli. Michanganyiko huwa na asilimia 60-95 za alikoholi. Tahadhari ni muhimu kwa sababu inaweza kuwaka.[2]

Vitakasa vya kialikoholi humaliza viini vingi lakini si spora.[6] Kuongeza gliserini hukinga dhidi ya kukauka kwa ngozi.

Shirika la Afya Duniani limetoa mwongozo wa kutengeneza kitakasa mikono kwa kutumia kemikali zinazopatikana karibu katika kila nchi. Kulingana na mwongozo huo, kutengeneza lita 10 za kitakasa mikono, zifuatazo zinachanganywa pamoja, na hutiwa maji yaliyochemshwa kwa lita 10[7]

Umuhimu wa kutakasa mikono[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Mikono ni njia kuu ya kusambaza viini vya kuambukiza na hapa kuna umuhimu wa kutakasa mikono mara kwa mara katika mazingira yenye pathojeni.

Hii ilionyeshwa mara ya kwanza mnamo mwaka 1846 ambapo tabibu Ignaz Semmelweis aliagiza wauguzi na madaktari katika hospitali yake ya Vienna kunawa mikono katika maji ya klorini kabla na baada ya kuwahudumia wagonjwa; alipunguza vifo kwa zaidi ya asilimia 90.

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. hand sanitizer - definition of hand sanitizer in English | Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford Dictionaries | English. Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 18 September 2017. Iliwekwa mnamo 12 July 2017.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Bolon, MK (September 2016). "Hand Hygiene: An Update.". Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 30 (3): 591–607. doi:10.1016/j.idc.2016.04.007 . PMID 27515139 . "In 2002, the CDC released an updated hand hygiene guideline and, for the first time, endorsed the use of alcohol-based hand rubs for the majority of clinical interactions, provided that hands are not visibly soiled".
  3. Hirose, R; Nakaya, T; Naito, Y; Daidoji, T; Bandou, R; Inoue, K; Dohi, O; Yoshida, N et al. (18 September 2019). "Situations Leading to Reduced Effectiveness of Current Hand Hygiene against Infectious Mucus from Influenza Virus-Infected Patients.". mSphere 4 (5). doi:10.1128/mSphere.00474-19 . PMC 6751490 . PMID 31533996 . "For many reasons, alcohol hand sanitizers are increasingly being used as disinfectants over hand washing with soap and water. Their ease of availability, no need for water or plumbing, and their proven effectiveness in reducing microbial load are just a few.".
  4. de Witt Huberts, J; Greenland, K; Schmidt, WP; Curtis, V (1 July 2016). "Exploring the potential of antimicrobial hand hygiene products in reducing the infectious burden in low-income countries: An integrative review.". American Journal of Infection Control 44 (7): 764–71. doi:10.1016/j.ajic.2016.01.045 . PMID 27061254 . https://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/2536608/1/TITLE%20PAGE%20Revision.docx.
  5. Meadows, E; Le Saux, N (1 November 2004). "A systematic review of the effectiveness of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizers for prevention of illness-related absenteeism in elementary school children.". BMC Public Health 4: 50. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-4-50 . PMC 534108 . PMID 15518593 .
  6. "Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings. Recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HICPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force. Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America/Association for Professionals in Infection Control/Infectious Diseases Society of America". MMWR. Recommendations and Reports 51 (RR-16): 1–45, quiz CE1–4. October 2002. PMID 12418624 . http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/rr/rr5116.pdf.
  7. Guide to local production