Kifafa

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Kifafa (kwa Kiingereza Epilepsyis, kutoka kitenzi cha Kigiriki ἐεπιλαμβάνειν, eepilambanein, kuteka au kutesa[1]) ni kundi la maradhi ya neva yanayofanana kwa dalili za matukio ya kupatwa,[2] ambayo yanaweza kudumu muda mfupi sana karibu bila kugundulika hadi muda mrefu wa kutikisika kwa nguvu mwili mzima.[3] Matukio hayo yanaelekea kurudiarudia bila sababu inayoeleweka kwa kila tukio[2] wakati matukio ya namna hiyo yenye sababu inayoeleweka si ya kifafa kweli.

Visababishi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Sababu ya kesi nyingi haijulikani, ingawa baadhi ya watu wanapatwa na kifafa kutokana na jeraha la ubongo, kiharusi, saratani ya ubongo na matumizi mabaya ya dawa. Mabadiliko ya DNA yanahusiana moja kwa moja na asilimia ndogo za kesi zote.[4]

Matukio ya kifafa yanatokana na utendaji mkubwa mno wa neva za ubongo.[5]

Ili kusema ni kifafa, daktari anapaswa kwanza kutambua hakuna sababu zinazoeleweka za dalili kama hizo, kwa mfano kuzimia.[4] Mara nyingi kifafa kinaweza kuthibitishwa na electroencephalogram (EEG).[4]

Tiba[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Katika 70% za matukio inawezekana kuyadhibiti.[6] Isipowezekana tiba, pengine upasuaji, uchocheaji wa neva na mabadiliko ya ulaji vinatumika. Si kila mara kifafa kinadumu maisha yote: kuna watu wanaopata nafuu kiasi cha kutohitaji tena dawa.

Uenezi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Karibu 1% ya watu wote duniani (milioni 65) wana kifafa,[7] na karibu 80% za kesi zinatokea katika nchi zinazoendelea.[3]

Mwaka 2013 vilitokea vifo 116,000, ambavyo ni vingi kuliko vile 112,000 vya mwaka 1990.[8]

Kifafa kinazidi kutokea kadiri watu wanavyokua.[9][10][11][12]

Tazama pia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. Magiorkinis E, Kalliopi S, Diamantis A (January 2010). "Hallmarks in the history of epilepsy: epilepsy in antiquity". Epilepsy & behavior : E&B 17 (1): 103–108. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2009.10.023 . PMID 19963440 .
  2. 2.0 2.1 Chang BS, Lowenstein DH (2003). "Epilepsy". N. Engl. J. Med. 349 (13): 1257–66. doi:10.1056/NEJMra022308 . PMID 14507951 .
  3. 3.0 3.1 Epilepsy. World Health Organization (October 2012). Iliwekwa mnamo January 24, 2013.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 (2012) "369 Seizures and Epilepsy", Harrison's principles of internal medicine, 18th, McGraw-Hill, 3258. ISBN 978-0-07-174887-2. 
  5. Fisher R, van Emde Boas W, Blume W, Elger C, Genton P, Lee P, Engel J (2005). "Epileptic seizures and epilepsy: definitions proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) and the International Bureau for Epilepsy (IBE)". Epilepsia 46 (4): 470–2. doi:10.1111/j.0013-9580.2005.66104.x . PMID 15816939 . http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.0013-9580.2005.66104.x.
  6. Eadie, MJ (December 2012). "Shortcomings in the current treatment of epilepsy.". Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 12 (12): 1419–27. doi:10.1586/ern.12.129 . PMID 23237349 .
  7. Thurman, DJ; Beghi, E; Begley, CE; Berg, AT; Buchhalter, JR; Ding, D; Hesdorffer, DC; Hauser, WA; Kazis, L; Kobau, R; Kroner, B; Labiner, D; Liow, K; Logroscino, G; Medina, MT; Newton, CR; Parko, K; Paschal, A; Preux, PM; Sander, JW; Selassie, A; Theodore, W; Tomson, T; Wiebe, S; ILAE Commission on, Epidemiology (September 2011). "Standards for epidemiologic studies and surveillance of epilepsy.". Epilepsia 52 Suppl 7: 2–26. doi:10.1111/j.1528-1167.2011.03121.x . PMID 21899536 .
  8. GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.". Lancet 385 (9963): 117–71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2 . PMC 4340604 . PMID 25530442 .
  9. Brodie, MJ; Elder, AT; Kwan, P (November 2009). "Epilepsy in later life". Lancet neurology 8 (11): 1019–30. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(09)70240-6 . PMID 19800848 .
  10. Holmes, Thomas R. Browne, Gregory L. (2008). Handbook of epilepsy, 4th, Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 7. ISBN 978-0-7817-7397-3. 
  11. (2010) Wyllie's treatment of epilepsy : principles and practice., 5th, Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 978-1-58255-937-7. 
  12. Berg, AT (2008). "Risk of recurrence after a first unprovoked seizure". Epilepsia 49 Suppl 1: 13–8. doi:10.1111/j.1528-1167.2008.01444.x . PMID 18184149 .

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • World Health Organization, Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse, Programme for Neurological Diseases and Neuroscience; Global Campaign against Epilepsy; International League against Epilepsy (2005). Atlas, epilepsy care in the world, 2005 (pdf), Geneva: Programme for Neurological Diseases and Neuroscience, Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse, World Health Organization. ISBN 92-4-156303-6. 

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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